Kurkh Monolith of Shalmaneser III 853 BCE

COS 2.113A, pp. 263-264

I approached the city of Qarqar.  I razed, destroyed and burned the city of Qarqar , his royal city.  1,200 chariots, 1,200 cavalry, and 20,000 troops of Hadad-ezer of Damascus; 700 chariots, 700 cavalry, 10,000 troops of Irhuleni, the Hamathite;  2,000 chariots, and 10,000 troops of Ahab, the Israelite; 500 troops of Byblos; 1,000 troops of Egypt; 10 chariots and 10,000 troops of the land of Irqanatu; 200 troops of Matinu-ba'al of the city of Arvad; 200 troops of the land of Usanatu; 30 chariots and X,000 troops of Adon-ba'al of the land of Shianu, 1,000 camels of Gindibu of Arabia; X hundred troops of Ba'asa,  the man of Bit ruhubi, the Ammonite--these twelve kings he took as his allies....

I decisively defeated them from the city of Qarqar to the city of Gilzau.  I felled with the sword 14,000 troops, their fighting men.  Like Adad, I rained down upon them a devastating flood.  I spread out their corpses and I filled the plain.  I felled with the sword their extensive troops.  I made their blood flow in the wadis.  The field was too small for laying flat their bodies; the broad countryside had been consumed in burying them.  I blocked the Orontes River with their corpses as with a causeway.  In the midst of this battle I took away from them chariots, cavalry, and teams of horses.


Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III 841 BCE

COS 2.113F, p. 270

I received the tribute of Jehu the man of Bit-Humri (Omri):  silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden goblet, golden cups, golden buckets, tin, a staff of the king's hand, and javelins.

Kurba'il Statue of Shalmaneser III 839-838 BCE

COS 2.113E, p. 268

At that time [841], I received the tribute of the Tyrians, the Sidonians, and Jehu, the man of Bit-Humri (Omri).

Calah Bulls of Shalmaneser III 841 BCE

COS 2.113C, p. 2.267

At that time, I received the tribute of the Tyrians and the Sidonians, and of Jehu, man of Bit-Humri.

Marble Slab inscription of Shalmaneser III 839 BCE

COS 2.113D, p. 268

[In 841] I marched to the mountains of Ba'li-ra'si at the side of the sea and opposite Tyre.  I erected a statue of my royalty there.  I received the tribute of Ba'al-manzer, the Tyrian, and of Jehu, the man of Bit-Humri.

Tell Al Rimah Stela of Adad-Nirari III  797 BCE

COS 2.114F, p. 276

I received the tribute of Joash the Samarian, of the Tyrian (ruler), and of the Sidonian (ruler).

Calah Slab of Adad-Nirari III

COS 2, 276, 2.114G

I subdued from the bank of the Euphrates, the land of Hatti, the land of Amurru in its entirety, the land of Tyre, the land of Sidon, the land of Israel, the land of Edom, the land of Philistia, as far as the great sea in the west.  I imposed tax and tribute on them.


Tiglath-pileser III

The third year of Nabu-nasir, king of Babylon:  Tiglath-pileser III ascended the throne of Assyria.  In that same year he went down to Akkad, plundered Rabbilu and Hamranu, and abducted the gods of Shapazza.  Neo-Babylonian Chronicle 1.

ANET 282 In the subsequent course of my campaign, I received the tribute of the kings...Azriau the Judahite

COS 2, 285, 2.117A

Calah Annals ca. 738-37

I received the tribute of...Rezin, the Damascene, Menahem, the Samarian, Hiram, the Tyrian....


COS 2, 286, 2.117A

Calah Annals

Rezin the Damascene...With the blood of his warriors I dyed a reddish hue the river....That one (Rezin) in order to save his life, fled alone; and he entered the gate of his city like a mongoose.  I impaled alive his chief ministers....I confined him like a bird in a cage.  His gardens...orchards without number I cut down; I did not leave a single one.

[16] districts of Bit-Humri (Israel) I leveled to the ground.


COS 2, 287, 2.117B

The Iran Stela ca. 739-38

...Rezin, the Damascene, Menahem, the Samarian, Tuba'il, the Tyrian, etc...I imposed on them tribute of silver, gold, tin, iron, elephant hides, elephant tusks (ivory), blue-purple and red-purple garments, multi-colored garments, camels, and she-camels.


COS 2, 288, 2.117C

Summary Inscription ca. 731

I carried off to Assyria the land of Bit-Humria (Israel), [its] auxiliary [army]...all of its people,...[I killed] Pekah, their king, and I installed Hoshea [as king] over them.  I received from them 10 talents of gold, x talents of silver, [with] their [possessions] and [I car]ried them [to Assyria].


COS 2, 289, 2.117D

Summary Inscription

I received the tribute of...Sanipu, Ammonite, Salamanu, Moabite,...Mitinti, the Askhelonite, Jehoahaz, the Judahite [= Ahaz]


COS 2, 291, 2.117F

Summary Inscription 9-10

The wide [land of Bit]-Haza'ili (Aram-Damascus) in its entirety, from Mount [Leb]anon as far as the city of Gilea[d], Abel...[on the bor]der of Bit-Humria (Israel) I annexed to Assyria.  [I placed] my eunuch [over them as governor].


COS 2, 292

Summary Inscription 13, 2.117G

[The land of Bit-Humria (Israel)], all [of whose] cities I leveled [to the ground] in my former campaigns...I plundered its livestock, and I spared only (isolated) Samaria.  [I/they overthrew Pek]ah their king.

The second year [of Nabu-mukin-zeri]:  Tiglath-pileser III ascended the throne in Babylon.  The second year:  Tiglath-pileser III died in the month Tebet  For eighteen years Tiglath-pileser III ruled Akkad and Assyria.  For two of these years he ruled in Akkad.  Neo-Babylonian Chronicle 1:24-26

Shalmaneser V

Babylonian Chronicle

COS 1.137, p. 467

On 27th Tebet (727 BCE) Shalmaneser (V) ascended the throne in Assyria and Babylonia.  He shattered Samaria.

Year 5:  (722 BCE) Shalmaneser died in Tebet.  Five years Shalmaneser ruled Babylonia and Assyria.  On 12th Tebet Sargon ascended the throne in Assyria.  In Nisan Merodach-baladan ascended the throne in Babylon.



Sargon II

COS 1.137, p. 467 Shalmaneser died in Tebet.  Five years Shalmaneser ruled Babylonia and Assyria.  On 12th Tebet Sargon ascended the throne of Assyria.  In Nisan Merodach-baladan ascended the throne in Babylon

Sargon II

COS 2.118A, p. 293

[the Samar]ians [who had agreed with a hostile king]...I fought with them and decisively defeated them]....carried off as spoil.  50 chariots for my royal force ...[the rest of them I settled in the midst of Assyria]....The Tamudi, Ibadidi, Marsimani and Hayappa, who live in distant Arabia, in the desert, who knew neither overseer nor commander, who never brought tribute to any king--with the help of Ashshur my lord, I defeated them.  I deported the rest of them. I settled them in Samaria/Samerina.


COS 2.118D, pp. 295-296, Nimrud Prisms

[The inhabitants of Sa]merina, who agreed [and plotted] with a king [hostile to] me, not to do service and not to bring tribute [to Ashshur] and who did battle, I fought against them with the power of the great gods, my lords.  I counted as spoil 27,280 people, together with their chariots, and gods, in which they trusted.  I formed a unit with 200 of [their] chariots for my royal force.  I settled the rest of them in the midst of Assyria.  I repopulated Samerina more than before.  I brought into it people from countries conquered by my hands.  I appointed my eunuch as governor over them.  And I counted them as Assyrians.

COS 2.118E, pp. 296-297, The Great "Summary" Inscription

I besieged and conquered Samarina.  I took as booty 27,290 people who lived there.  I gathered 50 chariots from them.  I taught the rest of the deportees their skills.  I set my eunuch over them, and I imposed upon them the same tribute as the previous king (Shalmaneser V). 

Yaubi'di, the Hamathite...with no claim to the throne, an evil Hittite, was plotting in his heart to become king of Hamath.  He caused...to rebel against me , had unified them, and prepared for battle.  I mustered the masses of Ashshur's troops and at Qarqar, his favorite city, I besieged and captured him, together with his warriors.  I burned Qarqar.  Him I flayed.

COS 2.118F, p. 297

Small Summary Inscription

I plundered Sinuhtu, Samerina and the entire land of Bit-Humria (Israel).


COS 2.118G, p. 298

Pavement Inscription at Kur Sharrukin:

[Sargon II] who conquered Samaria and the entire land of Bit-Humria (Israel); who plundered Ashdod...


COS 2.118I, p. 298

Nimrud Inscription

[Sargon II]...subduer of Judah which lies far away....


Azekah Inscription

COS 2, 304, 2.119D

With the power and might of Ashur, my lord, I overwhelmed the district of Hezekiah of Judah...Azekah, his stronghold, which is located between my land and the land of Judah...I besieged by means of beaten earth ramps, by great battering rams brought near its walls, and with the attack of foot soldiers [...] They had seen the...of my cavalry and they had heard the roar of the mighty troops of the god Ashur, and their hearts became afraid.  I captured this stronghold, I carried off its spoil, I destroyed, I devastated, I burned with fire.  I approached Ekron, a royal city of the Philistines, which Hezekiah had captured and strengthened for himself....His skillful battle warriors he caused to enter into it.  701 BCE or 712, during the reign of Sargon II.

The twelfth year of Merodach-baladan II:  Sargon II went down to akkad and did battle against Merodach-baladan II.  Merodach-baladan II retreated before him and fled to Elam....Sargon II ascended the throne in Babylon.  Neo-Babylonian Chronicle 1 ii:1-5.

Capture and Destruction of Babylon

COS 2, 305, 2.119E

Captured Nabu-shum-ishkin, son of Merodach-baladan, king of Babylon.  Captured Shuzubu (Mushezib-Marduk), who had seized the throne of Babylon at the end of 693.  This battle is in 689.

Sennacherib's Annals

COS 2, 303, 2.119B

Because Hezekiah of Judah did not submit to my yoke, I laid siege to 46 of his fortified cities, walled forts, and to the countless villages in their vicinity.  I conquered them using earthen ramps and  battering rams....I took 200,150 prisoners of war....I imprisoned Hezekiah in Jerusalem like a bird in a cage.  I erected siege works to prevent anyone escaping through the city gates.  The cities of Judah, which I captured I gave to Mitiniti, ruler of Ashdod, and to Padi, ruler of Ekron, and to Sillibel, ruler of Gaza....Hezekiah, who was overwhelmed by my terror-inspiring splendor, was deserted by his elite troops, which he had brought into Jerusalem.  He was forced to send me 420 pounds of gold, 11,200 pounds of silver, precious stones, couches and chairs...his daughters, concubines....He sent his personal messenger to deliver this tribute and bow down to me.

Lachish Relief (Inscribed on the famous set of pictures of Sennacherib's attack on Lachish, discovered at Nineveh and now found in the British Museum)

COS 2, 304, 2.119C

Sennacherib, king of the universe, king of Assyria, seated upon a sedan chair, the spoils of Lachish passed before him.

Assassination of Sennacherib

COS 1.137, p. 467 from the Babylonian Chronicle
On 20th Tebet Sennacherib king of Assyria--his son killed him in a revolt.  Cf. 2 Kgs 19:37; Isa 37:38.


The twelfth year:  The king of Assyria marched to Egypt, but became ill on the way and died on the tenth day of the month Marchesvan....Shamash-shuma-ukin and Ashurbanipal, his two sons, ascended the throne in Babylon and Assyria respectively.  669  Neo-Babylonian Chronicle 1 iv. 30-33.

Tribute List of Ashurbanipal

Two minas of gold from the inhabitants of Bit-Ammon; one mina of gold from the inhabitants of Moab; ten minas of silver from the inhabitants of Judah;...minas of silver from the inhabitants of Edom.

Babylonian Chronicle

17th year.  In the month of Du'uzu, Ashur-uballit, king of Assyria (and) a large army of Egypt who had come to his aid crossed the river (Euphrates) and marched to conquer Harran.

Babylonian Chronicle of Nebuchadnezzar

In the 21st year the king of Akkad [Nabopolassar] stayed in his own land, Nebuchadnezzar his eldest son, the crown-prince, mustered (the Babylonian army) and took command of his troops; he marched to Carchemish which is on the banks of the Euphrates, and crossed the river (to go) against the Egyptian army which lay in Carchemish....He accomplished their defeat...and in the district of Hamath.

Lachish Letter 4

I have posted your orders in writing.  Following your orders to make a reconnaissance of Beth-haraphid, I discovered that it had been abandoned.  Semaiah has taken Semachiah into custody so that he can be transferred....This letter certifies to the commanding officer that I remain on duty to carry out your orders.  Judah's signal fire at Lachish still burns, ever after the only other remaining signal fire at Azekah has gone out.

Babylonian Chronicle for Nebuchadrezzar

Year 7: (598/597):  in Kislev the King of Babylonia called out his army and marched to Hattu. He set his camp against the city of Judah and on 2nd Adar he took the city and captured the king [Jehoiachin].  He appointed a king of his choosing there, took heavy tribute and returned to Babylon

Dream Text

With the arrival of his third regnal year, they stirred up Cyrus, king of the land of Anshan, his (Marduk's) young servant.  With his small army he dispersed the vast barbarians; Astyages, king of the barbarians, he captured.  He brought him in captivity to his land.

Babylonian Chronicle

COS 1.137, p. 468

On 16th Ugbaru, the governor of Gutium, and the army of Cyrus entered Babylon without a battle.  Afterwards, after Nabonidus had retreated, he was captured in Babylon.  In the month of Marcheswan, on the third day of the month, Cyrus entered Babylon.

Cyrus Cylinder

Nabonidus turned the worship of Marduk, ruler of the divine assembly in Babylon, into an abomination...Marduk...heard the people of Babylon when they cried out and became angry....Marduk...chose Cyrus...and anointed him as ruler of all the earth....He ordered him to march against Babylon...Marduk allowed Cyrus to enter Babylon without a battle...and delivered Nabonidus...into the hands of Cyrus.