Jehoram/Ahaziah to the end of the Northern Kingdom in Chronicles and Kings

A Synopsis by Ralph W. Klein

© by Ralph W. Klein 2000, 2003, 2006

2 Chronicles 1 Kings-2Kings
Vannutelli 166

21:1 Jehoshaphat slept with his ancestors and was buried with them in the city of David. His son Jehoram (851-843/842) succeeded him.

22:51-54 (50-53) v. 51 identical to Chronicles. Additions:

Ahaziah (852-851) succeeded Ahab in the north in the 17th year of Jehoshaphat. He walked in the way of Ahab and Jezebel, his parents, and in the way of Jeroboam. He provoked Yahweh to anger as his father had.

Northern Kings:  Ahaziah, Jehoram,

2 Kings

Vannutelli 167

2 Kgs 1:1-18 An injured Ahaziah sought out Baalzebub of Ekron and was sentenced to death by an oracle of Elijah. After two companies of 50 men who had been sent to arrest Elijah were killed, Elijah went with the captain of a third company of fifty and delivered a death oracle directly to Ahaziah. Ahaziah dies and his acts are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel.  His brother Jehoram (851-842/841) succeeded him in the second year of Jehoram son of Jehoshaphat king of Judah (v. 17)

Vannutelli 168

2:1-25 Elijah ascended to heaven and was succeeded by Elisha.  Elisha purified water and called out she-bears, which mauled 42 boys who had been mocking him.

Vannutelli 169

3:1-27 Jehoram (of the north) became king in the 18th year of Jehoshaphat (v. 1; per contra 1:17 in second year of Jehoram son of Jehoshaphat).   Mesha had paid the king of Israel 100,000 lambs and 100,000 rams annually, but with the death of Ahab he revolted.  Jehoram of Israel, Jehoshaphat of Judah, and the king of Edom made war against Moab.    Elisha prophesied that the wadis would be miraculously filled with water and that they would defeat Moab.  The Moabites saw  sunlight reflected off the water and thought it was the blood of their enemies.  When the Moabites go out to collect spoil, they are soundly defeated by the Israelites.  The King of Moab then sacrificed his son as a burnt offering on the city wall. Great wrath came upon Israel (from Chemosh?), and they withdrew.

Vannutelli 170

4:1-44 Elisha and the widow’s oil; Elisha raised the Shunammite’s son. He purified a pot of stew and fed 100 men.

Vannutelli 171

5:1-27 Healing of Naaman; Gehazi’s greed

Vannutelli 172-173

6:1-7:20 Miracle of the ax handle (6:1-7); an Aramean attack is thwarted when Elisha strikes them with blindness and eventually convinces the king of Israel to feed them (6:8-23)! Ben-hadad besieged Samaria causing a severe famine.  But Yahweh caused the Arameans to flee and prices returned to normal rangers (6:24-7:20).

Vannutelli 174

8:1-15 Shunammite woman’s land restored; Elisha predicted that Hazael would murder Ben-hadad (= Hadadezer known from Assyrian sources or the son of Hadadezer).  Shalmaneser III calls Hazael "son of a nobody."

Jehoram's Reign in Judah



2 Chronicles 2 Kings
Vannutelli 175

21:2-4 Jehoram (851-843/2; co-regency with Jehoshaphat) had six brothers, all descended from Jehoshaphat, king of Israel [LXX Judah].  Brothers received many gifts, but Jehoram was the firstborn and so he became king.  Jehoram killed his brothers and some of the officials of Israel.

8:16 Jehoram of Judah (851-843/842) began to reign in the 5th year of Joram son of Ahab king of Israel.

21:5-10a Jehoram ruled 8 years. He walked in the way of the kings of Israel. The daughter of Ahab was his wife. Yahweh was unwilling to destroy the house of David because of the covenant he had made with David and as he had promised to give him and his sons "dominion" [a lamp]. Hence Yahweh would not destroy house of David.

Edom installed a king and revolted, and Jehoram attacked, but Edom remains in revolt to this day.

8:17-22a Very similar.



for the sake of David his servant, and because Yahweh had given him and his sons dominion, Yahweh was unwilling to destroy Judah (v. 19).

21:10b-11 Libnah (on the western edge of Judah) also rebelled since Jehoram had forsaken Yahweh the God of his ancestors. Jehoram made high places—Asa and Jehoshaphat had torn them down!--and led the inhabitants of Jerusalem into unfaithfulness and made Judah go astray.

8:22b Then Libnah rebelled at that time.

Vannutelli 176

21:12-15 Elijah sent Jehoram a letter: You have not walked in ways of Jehoshaphat or Asa, but you have walked in the ways of the kings of Israel. You led Judah and Jerusalem into unfaithfulness. You also killed your brothers. Yahweh will bring a plague on the people and you will die of a severe bowel disease (cf. Asa in 16:12-14 and Uzziah in 26:16-21).


Vannutelli 177

21:16-20aba Yahweh brought Philistines and Arabs against Judah. They took away his possessions, his wives, and his sons, and only left him Jehoahaz (= Ahaziah?), his youngest son. Jehoram died in great agony. His people made no fire in his honor (per contra Asa in 16:14). He departed with no one’s regret.


21:20bb They buried him in the city of David, but not in the tombs of the kings.

8:23-24a Rest of his acts are written in book of the Chronicles of the kings of Judah. He slept with his ancestors and was buried with his ancestors in the city of David.

Vannutelli 178

22:1-6 Inhabitants of Jerusalem made Ahaziah king. Troops who had come with the Arabs had killed older sons of Jehoram, just as Jehoram had killed all his brothers (21:3; cf. 21:16-17 where Philistines and Arabs had taken away the sons of Jehoram). Ahaziah was 42 when he became king (though his father died at age 40!; 2 Kings 8:26 says he was twenty-two at his accession) and reigned for one year. His mother was Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab (21:6//2 Kgs 8:18; 22:2//2 Kgs 8:25 daughter of Omri). He walked in the ways of Ahab, under influence of his mother Athaliah.

Ahaziah joined Jehoram (son of Ahab) in making war against Hazael of Aram at Ramoth-gilead. Jehoram of North Israel was injured, and Ahaziah (some Hebrew mss. and the versions)/Azariah (MT) went to visit him in Jezreel (site of the summer palace).

8:24b-29 Similar.




v. 26 Ahaziah 22 when he became king

v. 27 way….

Tel Dan inscription:

[Jeho]ram son of [Ahab] king of Israel and [Ahaz]iah son of [Jehoram ki]ng of the house of David killed by Hazael.


Vannutelli 179

9:1-13 Elisha sent a young prophet to anoint Jehu (842/841-815/814) as king at Ramoth-gilead.  You shall strike down dynasty of Ahab; avenge the blood of the prophets on Jezebel.  His companions refer to the prophet as a madman.


Vannutelli 180

9:14-20 Joram had returned to be healed in Jezreel.  Jehu commandeered messengers from Jehoram and drove furiously.

Vannutelli 180

22:7-9 God ordained that the downfall of Ahaziah [of the south] would happen through his visit to Jehoram [of the north]. Ahaziah and Jehoram went out to meet Jehu son of Nimshi, whom Yahweh had anointed to destroy the house of Ahab. Jehu killed officials of Judah,





Jehu killed the sons of Ahaziah’s brothers and Ahaziah himself, who was hiding in Samaria. They buried him for they said: He is the grandson of Jehoshaphat. The house of Ahaziah had no one able to rule the kingdom.



v. 21 Joram of Israel and Ahaziah of Judah found Jehu in the field of Naboth the Jezreelite.


vv. 22-26 Jehu criticized Joram for whoredoms and sorceries of his mother Jezebel. Joram cried treason, and Jehu shot him with an arrow. Jehu commanded his servant to throw him on the plot of ground belonging to Naboth.

vv. 27-29 Jehu pursued the fleeing Ahaziah (of the south) and shot him near Ibleam; he died at Megiddo. They carried him to Jerusalem and buried him in his tomb with his ancestors in the city of David.

Tel Dan inscription:  I [Hazael] killed [Jeho]ram son of [Ahab] king of Israel and I killed [Ahaz]iah son of [Jehoram kin]g of the house of David.




Vannutelli 181

9:30-10:14 Jezebel thrown from a window by two or three eunuchs, and her body was eaten by dogs. Ahab’s 70 descendants massacred. Their heads were put in baskets and sent to Jezreel.  Jehu killed 42 kin of Ahaziah of Judah at the pit of Beth-eked (10:12-14).


Vannutelli 182

10:15-36 Jonadab and the Rechabites meet Jehu; slaughter of the worshipers of Baal in Baal's temple. Hazael defeated Israel throughout the territory of Israel, especially in Transjordan, and Israel became a vassal of Aram (vv. 32-33).  All this brought dynasty of Omri to an end.
 Jehu slept with his ancestors--he ruled for 28 years. Jehoahaz (819-804/3) succeeded Jehu.

Vannutelli 183

22:10-12 Athaliah (842/841-835) widow of Jehoram and mother of Ahaziah, destroyed royal family [seed of the kingdom] of the house of Judah. Jehoshabeath, daughter of king Jehoram ([half?] sister of Ahaziah) and wife of the priest Jehoiada, hid Joash, son of Ahaziah and grandson of Athaliah, in a bedroom with his nurse. He stayed in the house of God for six years while Athaliah reigned (tklm) over the land.

Athaliah’s husband Jehoram had killed his own brothers [21:4], and invading Arabs and Philistines had killed his wives and sons except for Jehoahaz (= Ahaziah) his youngest son [21:16-17; 22:1].

Ahab and Omri, Athaliah’s father and grandfather (or brother and father) and the northern kings Ahaziah and Jehoram, who were her brothers (or nephews), were also dead. Her husband Jehoram and her son Ahaziah were dead, as were now all but one of her grandchildren [Joash] by her own actions.  Other grandchildren or step grandchildren had been killed by Jehu [22:8]. Athaliah was truly a person alone in the world.

11:1-3 Similar

v. 2 Jehosheba, king Joram’s daughter, Ahaziah’s [half?] sister.  No mention of her marriage to Jehoiada.

Vannutelli 184

23:1-2 In the 7th year Jehoiada strengthened himself and entered into a compact with the commanders of the hundreds (5 names are given). They gathered Levites from the towns of Judah and the heads of the families of Israel.

11:4aa In the 7th year Jehoiada sent and took captains of the Carites and the guards

23:3-6 Whole assembly made a covenant with the king. Jehoiada showed them the king’s son. 1/3 shall be gatekeepers, 1/3 shall be at the king’s house, and 1/3 at the Gate of the Foundation. No one can enter the temple except priests and ministering Levites.

11:4ab -7 Similar. But only military commanders (not whole assembly) made a covenant with Jehoiada. King not mentioned in connection with the covenant in Kings. The division into thirds is much more complicated than in Chronicles.

v. 6 Gate Sur. Omits reference to no one entering the temple.

23:7-15 Levites and all Judah followed Jehoiada’s command. Levites were to surround the king with weapons. Jehoiada handed out weapons that had belonged to David. He brought out king’s son, put a crown on him, and gave him the "covenant" (twd[) They proclaimed him king, and Jehoiada and his sons anointed him, and shouted Long live the king!

Athaliah entered temple and the boy king Joash was standing by the pillar at the entrance. People of the land (cf. 2 Chr 23:20-21, 26:21, 33:25; 36:1) were blowing trumpets. Athaliah tore her clothes and she cried: "Treason." They arrested her and executed her at the Horse Gate of the king’s house (not in temple although high priest’s son was later killed there, 24:21).

11:8-16 Similar. Levites not mentioned.




v. 12 + they clapped their hands (perhaps omitted by Chronicler because of the negative connotations of this action, e.g. in Ezekiel).
v. 14 first mention of people of the land
v. 16 She went through the horses’ entrance to the king’s house, and there she was put to death.

Vannutelli 185

23:16-19 Jehoiada made a covenant between himself and all the people and the king. People went to the house of Baal and tore it down. They killed Mattan, the priest of Baal. Jehoiada assigned care of the house of Yahweh to the levitical priests (v. 18) whom David had organized. As it is written in the law of Moses, according to the order of David. Gatekeepers to ban all who are unclean.


v. 17 Covenant partners are Yahweh, the king, and the people that they should be Yahweh’s people. Also a covenant between the king and the people to renew loyalty to Davidic house (lacking in Lucianic LXX).

v. 18 No references to care of the house of Yahweh being assigned to levitical priests, or precedents of David and Moses, or gatekeepers

23:20-21 They (including captains, nobles, governors of the people, and all the people of the land) led king from the house of Yahweh to the palace and put him on his throne. People of the land rejoiced and land was quiet, once they had put Athaliah to death by the sword.

11:19-20 Similar, but with minor variations. He took his seat on the throne of the kings. They killed Athaliah in the king’s house.

Vannutelli 186

24:1-2 Joash *842/841-802/801) became king at 7 and ruled for 40 years. His mother’s name was Zibiah of Beer-sheba. He did what was right as long as Jehoiada lived.

12:1-3 [11:21-12:2] Similar. Jehoash became king in 7th year of Jehu.

Jehoash did what was right all his days because Jehoiada instructed him.

12:4 [3] The high places were not taken away.

24:3-4 Jehoiada got two wives for him. Later Joash decided to restore the house of Yahweh.


24:5-7 Priests and Levites were sent to gather money from all Israel to repair the house of God, year by year, and do it quickly. Levites did not act quickly. Joash reprimanded Jehoiada for not requiring the Levites to bring in tax levied by Moses for the tabernacle. The children of Athaliah had broken into the house of Yahweh and used all the "dedicated things" for the Baals.

12:5-8 [4-7] Content similar, but considerable variation in wording. Jehoash asked priests (Levites play no role) to receive money from donors. By 23rd year no repairs had been made. Jehoash: Do not accept any more money!


12:9 [8] Priests agreed not to accept money and not to repair the temple.

24:8 The king commanded them to make a chest and put it outside the gate (laity had no access to inner court).

12:10 [9] Jehoiada put a chest beside the altar. Priests put money in the chest.

24:9-10 Proclamation was made throughout Judah and Jerusalem to collect tax Moses had laid on Israel in the wilderness (Exod 30:11-16; 38:25-26). People rejoiced and brought their tax.


24:11-14 The king’s secretary and the chief priest would empty the chest. They hired craftsmen to do the repairs on the temple. Surplus was used for cultic utensils (Exod 25; 31:1-10). Burnt offerings were regular in days of Jehoiada.

12:11-14 [10-13] Similar, except that no cultic utensils were made from the collection.


12:15-17 [14-16] Money designated for those making repairs. Workers dealt honestly so that no accounting was necessary. Money from the guilt and sin offerings belonged to the priests.

Vannutelli 187

24:15-22 Jehoiada died at 130; he was buried with the kings. Officials abandoned house of Yahweh and served the asherim and the idols. Wrath came upon Judah and Jerusalem. People would not listen to prophets who were sent. Spirit of God came on Zechariah the son of Jehoiada. He reprimanded people for forsaking Yahweh. By the command of the king he was stoned to death. (Thus Joash killed the son of the man who had put him on the throne). Zechariah: May Yahweh see and avenge.






Recent  inscription:

Just as Ashyahu [Joash] commanded you to give by the hand of Zechariah silver of Tarshish to the House of Yahweh. Three sheqels. [Is this the same Zechariah and had he now become high priest?]

Vannutelli 188

24:23-27 Army of Aram attacked Joash, destroyed all the officials of the people, and sent booty to the king of Damascus. Small Aramean army won victory because "they" had abandoned Yahweh (v. 24; cf. vv. 18, 20). Joash’s servants (Zabad son of Shimeath the Ammonite, and Jehozabad son of Shimrith the Moabite) killed him in his bed because of the blood of Zechariah. They buried him in the city of David, but not in the tombs of the kings. Accounts of his sons, and of the many oracles against him, and of the rebuilding of the house of God are written in the Midrash on the Book of the Kings (13:22). Amaziah succeeded him.

12:18-22 [17-21] Hazael fought against Gath and took it. Jehoash of Judah paid a bribe from votive gifts that Jehoshaphat, Jehoram, Ahaziah, and he himself had made. Hazael withdrew.



Rest of the acts of Joash are written in Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah. His servants (Jozacar son of Shimeath and Jehozabad son of Shomer) killed him in the house of Millo. Buried with his ancestors in the city of David. Amaziah succeeded him.


Vannutelli 189

13:1-9 Jehoahaz (819-804/803) reigns for 17 years over Israel. He was given repeatedly into the hand of King Hazael and into the hand of his son Ben-Hadad. In response to king’s prayer, Yahweh raised up a savior (perhaps Adad-nirari III). Joash (805-790) succeeded him


Vannutelli 190

13:10-25 Jehoash [of the north] reigned for 16 years. Elisha had fatal illness and gave Jehoash a chance for multiple victories over the Arameans. He chose too few--three. Reference to victory over Hazael at Aphek, east of the Sea of Galilee.  Elisha died--a dead man thrown into his tomb revives!  Hazael died and Ben-hadad (called Mar'i in inscriptions of Adad-nirari III) succeeded Hazael.  Joash defeated Ben-hadad (only) three times.

Vannutelli 191

25:1-4 Amaziah (805/804--776/775) became king of Judah at 25 and reigned for 29 years. His mother’s name was Jehoaddan of Jerusalem. He did what was right, but not with a true heart. He executed the servants who had murdered his father Joash. He did not execute their children, following the law of Moses: The parents shall not be put to death for the children and vice versa (Deut 24:16).

14:1-6 Similar. Plus: synchronism with the north. Jehoaddin (Qere: Jehoaddan) was his mother. Amaziah did what was right, but not like his ancestor David. He acted like Joash. High places were not removed (24:2; 26:4; 27:2).

Vannutelli 192

25:5-13 Amaziah mustered 300,000 from Judah (Asa had mustered 580,000 and Jehoshaphat 1,160,000) and hired 100,000 mighty warriors from Israel. A Man of God warned him that Yahweh was not with Israel—all these Ephraimites (cf. 13:4-12 Abijah’s sermon on Mount Zemaraim; 19:1-13 Jehoshaphat criticized for his league with the north). He dismissed the Ephraimites, but they went home in anger. He killed 10,000 men of Seir and captured another 10,000 and threw them down from Sela.  Ephraimite men on the way home fell on cities from Samaria to Beth-horon. They killed 3,000 and took much booty.

14:7 Amaziah killed 10,000 Edomites in the Valley of Salt and took Sela by storm; he called it Jokthe-el, which is its name to this day. Cf. 2 Chr 25:11.

Vannutelli 193

25:14-24 Amaziah imported and worshipped Edomite gods. An anonymous prophet rebuked him for this. King stopped this prophet from speaking, but prophet said: "God has determined to destroy you."

Amaziah sent hostile message to Joash, son of Jehoahaz, son of Jehu. Joash: Stay at home. Why should you and Judah fall? God forced Amaziah not to listen because of his offense with regard to the gods of Edom. Judah was defeated by Israel at Beth-shemesh. Everyone fled home. Joash of North Israel arrested Amaziah at Beth-shemesh and brought him to Jerusalem. Joash broke down 400 cubits of the wall of Jerusalem from the Ephraim Gate to the Corner Gate. Joash seized vessels from the house of God and Obed-edom with them (in the care of Obed-edom). He seized treasuries and the palace hostages and returned to Samaria.







14:8-14 Similar to 2 Chr 25:17-24..


14:15-16 Rest of the acts of Jehoash are written in the Book of the Annals of the Kings of Israel. He slept with his ancestors and was buried in Samaria. Jeroboam (790-750/749) succeeded him.

Vannutelli 194

25:25-26:2 Amaziah lived 15 years after death of Joash of Israel. Rest of his acts are written in the Book of the Kings of Judah and Israel.

From the time Amaziah turned away from Yahweh, "they" made a conspiracy against him and he fled to Lachish (30 miles from Jerusalem [how had he escaped from Joash?]), but they killed him there. Brought back on horses, he was buried with his ancestors in the city of David (LXX; MT Judah).

26:1 People of Judah made Uzziah (788/787-736/735) king at the age of 16. 26:2 He rebuilt Eloth and restored it to Judah.

14:17-22 Similar. Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah.





Buried in the city of David.

14:21-22  All the people of Judah took Azariah (788/787-736/735), who was 16, and made him king. He rebuilt Elath and restored it to Judah after Amaziah [Hebrew: the king] slept with his ancestors.


Vannutelli 195

14:23-29 Jeroboam became king and reigned 41 years. Jonah the prophet. Jeroboam recovered Damascus and Hamath, which had belonged to Judah. Zechariah succeeded him.


Vannutelli 196
15:1 Synchronism of Azariah of Judah with Jeroboam of Israel.

Vannutelli 196

26:3-4 Uzziah became king at 16 and ruled for 52 years (he probably had a co-regent at the beginning and the end of his reign). His mother’s name was Jecoliah of Jerusalem. He did what was right just as Amaziah had done (but see vv. 16-20).

15:2-3 Similar.

15:4 High places were not removed.

26:5-20 He set himself to seek Yahweh in the days of Zechariah (a person otherwise unknown). He broke down walls in Gath, Jabneh, Ashdod.  Attacked Arabs in Gur-Baal/Gerar.  God helped him against the Philistines, Arabs, and Meunites. The Meunites [cf. LXX; MT Ammonites] paid tribute and his fame spread to the border of Egypt. All expansion was toward the south (vv. 6-8).

Several building projects (vv. 9-10)--towers in Jerusalem by Corner Gate, Valley Gate, and at the angle.  Built towers and cisterns in the desert.

An army of 307,500 (cf. 2 Chr 14:8 300,000 from Judah and 280,000 from Benjamin in time of Asa; 2 Chr 17:14-19 780,000 from Judah and 380,000 from Benjamin in time of Jehoshaphat; 2 Chr 25:5 300,000 in time of Amaziah, plus 100,000 mercenaries from Israel). Heads of fathers houses amounted to 2,600.  Defensive machines erected in Jerusalem (vv. 11-15).

He became proud and entered the temple to make an offering on the altar of incense. Azariah and other priests rebuked him. He became angry and was struck with leprosy by Yahweh (vv. 16-20)

Click to see map of this incident

26:21-23 Leprous until the day of his death. He lived in a separate house and Jotham his son was in charge of the palace. The rest of his acts were written by Isaiah the prophet (cf. Isa 6:1). He slept with ancestors and was buried near his ancestors in the burial field that belonged to the kings. Jotham (758/757-742/741) succeeded him.

15:5-7 Similar. Rest of the acts of Azariah are written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah. They buried him with his ancestors in the city of David.


Vannutelli 197

15:8-22 Zechariah (750-749) reigned over Israel. Shallum (749) reigned over Israel after killing Zechariah. Menahem (749-738) reigned over Israel after killing Shallum. Menahem gave to Pul (Tiglath-pileser III) a thousand talents of silver and taxed wealthy people 50 shekels each.


Vannutelli 198

15:23-31 Pekahiah (738-736) reigned over Israel after his father’s death. Pekah (750?-732/731) reigned over Israel after killing Pekahiah. Tiglath-pileser III captured a number of cities and took people captive to Assyria. Hoshea (732/731-722) reigned after killing Pekah in the 20th year of Jotham. Pekah.

Vannutelli 199

27:1-3a Jotham (758/747-742/741) became king at 25 and reigned 16 years. His mother’s name was Jerushah daughter of Zadok. He did what was right like his father, but he did not invade the temple. The people still followed corrupt practices. He built the upper gate of the house of Yahweh.

15:32-35 Similar.



High places were not removed and people burned incense there (v. 35). No mention of invasion of the temple.

27:3b-6 Other building projects. Fought successfully with Ammonites. He became strong because he ordered his ways with Yahweh.


27:7-9 Rest of Jotham's acts are written in the Book of the Kings of Israel and Judah. Jotham became king at 25 and ruled for 16 years. They buried him in the city of David, and his son Ahaz succeeded him.

15:36-38 Rest of Jotham's acts in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah. Yahweh began to send Rezin of Aram and Pekah son of Remalliah against Judah. They buried him in the city of David his ancestor.


Vanutelli 200

16:1 Ahaz (742/741-726) began to reign in the 7th year of Pekah.

Vannutelli 200

28:1-5 Ahaz became king at 20 [LXX 25] and reigned 16 years. He did not do what was right like David his ancestor. He walked in the ways of the kings of Israel. He cast images for the Baals (cf. 2 Chr 13:8). He made his sons pass through the fire according to the abominable practices of the nations. He sacrificed on the high places, hills, and under every green tree. Therefore Yahweh gave him into the hand of the king of Aram, who defeated him and took captives to Damascus. The king of Israel also defeated him with great slaughter.

16:2-6 Similar. Rezin and Pekah mentioned by name and their attack described differently.  They besieged Ahaz, but were unable to prevail (cf. Isa 7:1).  Rezin recovered Elath for Aram and expelled Judahites from Elath.

28:6-15 Pekah killed 120,000 in Judah in one day. Zichri, an Ephraimite warrior killed Ahaz’s son and other top officials. People of Israel took 200,000 captives to Samaria. Oded, a prophet, conceded the guilt of Judah, but urged northerners to return the captives. (Yahweh is still God in North Israel). Other chiefs [is the king no longer functioning?] of the Ephraimites warned against bringing captives to Samaria because they would thereby bring additional guilt (cf. 2 Chr 13:4-12). They clothed the captives, provided them with food and drink, and took them to Jericho and then returned to Samaria.


Vannutelli 201

28:16 Ahaz sent to the king of Assyria for help.

16:7a Ahaz sent to King Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria.


16:7b-8 I am your servant and your son. Come and rescue me. Ahaz sent presents from temple and king’s palace.

28:17-21 Edomites and Philistines had invaded and captured a number of cities. Yahweh brought Judah low because of Ahaz. He was faithless (cf. 1 Chr 10:13).  Tilgath-pilneser came up against him.  Ahaz plundered temple and palace and gave the spoil to the king of Assyria, without benefit.



16:9 The King of Assyria marched against Damascus and killed Rezin.

Vannutelli 202

28:22-25 Ahaz became more faithless and sacrificed to the gods of Damascus since they had defeated him [interpretation of 2 Kgs 16:11 Uriah reconstructs altar that Ahaz had seen in Damascus]. He shut the doors of the temple and made altars in every corner of Jerusalem. He made high places in every city of Judah to make offerings to other gods. He provoked Yahweh to anger.



16:10-18 Ahaz saw an altar in Damascus and had Uriah reconstruct it in Jerusalem. The king performed sacrifices on it. He put the regular bronze altar on the north side of his altar.  The king frequented this altar.  Uriah did everything king Ahaz commanded in respect to offerings.  The king took down the Sea which rested on bronze oxen and put it on a pediment of stone.  He also removed "the sabbath awning."  These alterations were needed to pay heavy tribute in metal to the king of Assyria.

28:26-27 Rest of his acts are written in the Book of the Kings of Judah and Israel. They buried him in the city in Jerusalem, but not in the tombs of the kings of Israel. Hezekiah (726-697/696) succeeded him.

16:19-20 Rest of the acts of Ahaz are in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah. They buried him with his ancestors in the city of David.


Vannutelli 203

17:1-6 Hoshea (732/731-722) began to reign; in his 9th year the king of Assyria exiled the Israelites. Cf. 2 Kgs 18:9-12 and 1 Chr 5:26.

17:4-41 The causes of Israel’s exile; Assyria resettled Samaria.