Israel:  Rehoboam to Jehoshaphat in Judah
Judah:  Jeroboam to Ahab in Israel
931-845 BCE






22. Dynasty (Many of rulers were of Libyan origin)

Sheshonq I invaded Judah and Israel (Shishak) 945-924 ANET 242-
243, 263-264; ANEP 349 1 Kgs 14:25-28
//2 Chr 12:2-12.  See Sheshonq I.

Triumphant relief--Amun temple at Karnak

Shishak smiting prisoners

Cartouches of place names in Judah and Israel

SHISHCAR.JPG (33959 bytes)
Victory stela of Shishak at Megiddo

Sheshonq I

Osorkon I 924-889

osorkon1.gif (52646 bytes)

Osorkon I

Rehoboam 931/30-914 1 Kgs 12:1-24; 14:21-31//2 Chr 10:1-12:16

REHO.JPG (137090 bytes)

"My little finger is bigger than..."
Hans Holbein the Younger

Fortresses of Rehoboam
2 Chr 11:5-17

926/925 Invasion of Shishak who conquered 156 cities (Amun temple at Karnak)





Map of Shishak's invasion

Stelae of Pharaoh Shoshenq I


Gezer Calendar ANEP 272; COS 2,85, p. 222; ANET 320
Gezer Calendar

CALGEZ.JPG (232087 bytes)

Gezer Calendar, oldest Hebrew document 10-9c
Center for Online Judaic Studies

Osork.jpg (337482 bytes)


Osorkon I

Jeroboam I 931/30-909 1 Kgs 12:25-14:20

capital at Shechem, later at Tirzah; two sanctuaries at Bethel and Dan

Shishak engraved on temple wall:

kgshesho.jpg (400053 bytes)

Amun parading through Syro Palestinian cities


Shishak before Israelites, who raise their hands to be counted


DIVISION.JPG (314638 bytes)

Map of Divided Kingdom


Abdashtart king of Tyre; killed in coup. ca. 930

Ashtart king of Tyre 920-900

Abibaal king of Byblos ca. 930
Elibaal king of Byblos 920-?

Osorkon I with an inscription of Elibaal on the bust

clear picture of inscription


Hezion king of Damascus (father of Tabrimmon and grandfather of Ben-Hadad I) Cf. 1 Kgs 15:18













Gabbar, king of Sam'al c. 920

Ashur-dan II of Assyria 934-912


Abijah/Abijam 914-911
1 Kgs 15:1-8//2 Chr 13:1-14:1
war with Jeroboam I 1 Kgs 15:7
Invasion of north; captured Bethel, Jeshanah, and Ophrah 2 Chr 13:1-20

Abijah's invasion

Tab Rimmon of Damascus--alliance with Abijah 1 Kgs 15:19


Sheshonq II 890

Sheshonq II




Takelot I 889-874

Asa 911-870 1 Kgs 15:9-24a//2 Chr 14:2-16:14





Baasha invades Judah.  Asa is allied with and sends bribe to Ben-Hadad son of Tab-rimmon, king of Damascus.  Ben-Hadad attacks northern cities and Baasha withdraws

Nadab son of Jeroboam I 909-908 1 Kgs 15:25-32
assassinated by Baasha, from the tribe of Issachar, while Nadab was besieging the Philistines at Gibbethon 1 Kgs 15:28

Baasha 908-885 1 Kgs 15:33-16:7

Map of war between Baasha
 and Asa 1  Kgs 15:17-22

Elah son of Baasha 885-884 1 Kgs 16:8-14 assassinated while drunk by Zimri an army officer
 1 Kgs 16:10









Bir (Ben)-
 Hadad I of Aram ANET 501; 1 Kgs 15:16-22; 2 Chr 16:1-6

Adad-nirari II 911-891Assyrian king

Shamash-mudammiq  10/9c fourth king of Dynasty of E; Babylon was overrun by Adad-nirari II

Nabu-shuma-ukin I, king of Babylon 895

Tukulti-Ninurta II Assyrian king 890-884

Tuk2.jpg (59351 bytes)
Tukulti-Ninurta II







Zimri 884 1 Kgs 16:15-20
7 day rule ending in suicide.

Battle between Tibni [884-880] and Omri 884-873 1 Kgs 16:21-28

ASSPALAC.JPG (112897 bytes)

Ashur-nasirpal II palace; king depicted below

Ashurii.jpg (74033 bytes)

Ashur-nasirpal II 883-859 new capital:  Calah (Nimrud)  Banquet stele:  feasted 69,574 people ANET 558-560
Expedition to Carchemish and Lebanon, ANET 275-276 ANEP 350, 439, 441, 617
Hymn  celebrating campaigns to the west COS 1.139, p.  470-471

Ashurnasirpal shoots a lion


Osorkon II 874-850; married to Karomama I;  contemporary with Ahab

Osorkon II and Karomama I

Harsiese 874-850 at Thebes


Founding of Samaria by Omri 876

Omri defeated Moab--not mentioned in the Bible

Ittobaal (Ethbaal) king of Tyre 873-842 (887-856) father of Jezebel

Defeat of Bit Adini 856



Tell Fekheriye Statue Mid 9c--Hadad-Yith'I, local king in Syria and his father were Assyrian prefects COS 2.34, pp. 153-154.  Text in Aramaic and Assyrian. Curses against anyone who erases author's name

FAKH.JPG (69404 bytes)



Jehoshaphat 870-45 1 Kgs 15:24b; 22:1-50//2 Chr 17:1-21:1

fights Arameans with Ahab in 1 Kings 22 (but these participants may not be original)


Ahab 873-852 1 Kgs 16:29-22:40
Married Phoenician princess Jezebel, the daughter of Ethbaal, king of Tyre

Seal of Jezebel
More info on this seal

Moabite Stone (Mesha rids Moab of Israelite control), 835 BCE (or about 810 during reign of Jehoahaz), ANET 320-321 ANEP 274
Mesha COS 2.23, pp.  137-138

MOABST.JPG (328414 bytes)

The Moabite Stone
"As for Omri, king of Israel, he humbled Moab many years....and his son [Ahab] followed him."  Possible reference to Beth [Da]vid in line 31 and to "its Davidic lion" in line 9.

El Kerak inscription

I am Mesha, son of Kemosh-yat, the Dibonite






Takelot II 850-825; married to Karomama II

Karomama II

Marriage of Jehoram with Athaliah 867



Micaiah ben Imlah


Khaianu, king of Sam'al (contemporary of Shalmaneser III)


Shalmaneser III

Assyria:  Shalmanezer III Assyrian king  858-824  ANEP 351-365, 443, 819, 881-882
Constructed "Fort Shalmaneser" at Calah

Aššur Clay Tablets COS 2.113B, pp. 264-266 ANET 278-279
Calah Bulls COS 2.113C, pp. 266-267 ANET 279-280
Marble Slab COS 2.113D, pp. 267-268
Aššur Basalt Statue COS 2.113G, p. 270 ANET 280 Calls Hazael "son of a nobody."
Black Stone Cylinder COS 2.113H, p. 271 ANET 281
The Die of Yahali COS 2.113I, pp. 271-272

Nabu-apla-iddina, king of Babylon 888-855; renaissance in Babylon  commemorates royal grant to a priest. 
COS 2.135, pp.  364-368

Marduk-zakir-shumi I king of Babylon  854-819



QARMAP.JPG (149601 bytes)

Battle of Qarqar involving Ahab and Shalmaneser III

Click here for text of the inscription on the Kurkh Monolith COS 2.113A, pp. 261-264; ANET 277-278

Battle of Qarqar 853 Kurkh Monolith ANET 278-279; COS 2.113A, pp. 261-264 This battle is not mentioned in the Bible--Hadadezer of Damascus, Irhuleni of Hamath, and Ahab the Israelite vs Shalmaneser III

Kurkh stela of
Shalmaneser III
reports battle of Qarqar
More info

Hadad-ezer (Adad-idri) or Ben-Hadad II of Damascus 853-844--killed by Hazael

Irhuleni, king of Hamath 853-845

Statue of Hazel from Arlan Tash