Hezekiah in Chronicles and Kings (Isaiah)

A Synopsis by Ralph W. Klein

© Ralph W. Klein 2000, 2003, 2007

2 Chronicles

2 Kings

Vannutelli 204

29:1-2 Hezekiah became king at 25 and reigned 29 years. His mother was Abijah the daughter of Zechariah. He did what was right just as David had done. (cf. 17:3 for Jehoshaphat and 34:2 forJosiah)

18:1-3 Similar. + in third year of Hoshea of the Northern Kingdom. His mother was Abi daughter of Zechariah.

29:3-36 From 1-1 of his reign Hezekiah repaired the doors of the temple and reversed actions of his father Ahaz.  He instructed Levites to purify the temple.

Hezekiah: Our ancestors were unfaithful and they neglected cultic affairs. Result: the wrath of Yahweh has come upon Judah and Jerusalem (Jer 29:18). Our fathers have fallen and the rest of our families is in captivity. Hezekiah wanted to make a covenant with Yahweh so that the divine anger would turn away (v. 10).

vv. 12-16 Levites (two from each major family--Kohathites, Merarites, Gershonites, Elizapan, Asaph, Heman, Jeduthun) cleansed the house of Yahweh. Priests removed unclean things from the temple and Levites took them to Wadi Kidron (cf. Asa in 2 Chr 15:16 and Josiah in 2 Kgs 23:4, 6, 12)

vv. 17-19 From 1-1 to 1-8 they sanctified everything up to the vestibule of temple. For eight days they sanctified the house of Yahweh itself. On 1-16 (Passover should have begun on 1-14 according to Lev 23:5) they finished this work and reported to Hezekiah that they had placed all utensils in front of the altar--In his unfaithfulness, Ahaz had repudiated these utensils.

vv. 20-24 Hezekiah initiated a 28-animal burnt offering and sin offering (only time sin offering is mentioned in Chronicles and its effect is extended here to deliberate offenses), and he ordered descendants of Aaron to perform these sacrifices. Burnt offering and sin offering were made for all Israel.

vv. 25-30 The Levites, with their musical instruments, were stationed according to the command of David, Gad the seer, and Nathan the prophet—Yahweh’s command came through his prophets. Burnt offering was accompanied by music (cf. 2 Chr 7:6 at the dedication of the temple). Hezekiah commanded Levites to sing with the words of David and Asaph.

vv. 31-36 On king’s command the assembly brought sacrifices and thank offerings: 70 bulls, 100 rams, 200 lambs for burnt offering. Consecrated offerings were 600 bulls and 3,000 sheep. Priests few and unable to skin all burnt offerings so the Levites helped them. The Levites were more conscientious than the priests. In addition, there was the fat of the well-being offerings and drink offerings for the burnt offerings.

Service of the temple was restored—the thing came about suddenly (within the first three weeks of Hezekiah’s first year).

 

Vannutelli 205

30:1-27 Hezekiah invited Israel and Judah, Ephraim and Manasseh to celebrate the Passover in Jerusalem (Deut 16; 2 Kgs 23:21-23) in the second month because priests had not consecrated themselves in time, nor had people assembled (cf. Num 9:9-11; North Israel had already fallen).

Invitation went from Beer-sheba to Dan (cf. 1 Chr 21:2) to keep Passover and to return to Yahweh, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel (1 Chr 29:18), so that he might turn again to the remnant that escaped the kings of Assyria. Hezekiah: Yahweh gave your kindred  (from the north) to desolation as you see.  As you return to Yahweh, your relatives will find compassion with their captors and return to this land.

Couriers were laughed to scorn in Ephraim, Manasseh, and Zebulun (cf. 2 Chr 36:16), but a few from Asher, Manasseh and Zebulun humbled themselves and came to Jerusalem. Judah unanimously followed king and the officials (cf. 1 Chr 12:38).

A large assembly celebrated the Feast of Unleavened Bread in the 2nd month (v. 13). False altars were thrown into Wadi Kidron (v. 14;  cf. 2 Chr 28:24 where Ahaz destroyed Yahweh's vessels). They followed law of Moses. Priests dashed blood, and Levites sacrificed lambs for those who were not clean (vv. 16-17). Many from Ephraim, Manasseh, Issachar, and Zebulun had not cleansed themselves and yet they ate the Passover otherwise than as prescribed (v. 18).

Hezekiah prayed for those who sought Yahweh though not in accord with the rules of cleanness. Yahweh heard and healed the people. Unleavened Bread celebrated for seven days (v. 21; Exod 23:14-17; 34:18-23). Festival was extended for another seven days (v. 23; cf. Solomon in 2 Chr 7:8-9, where the feast of dedication of the temple [8th to 14th days of 7th month] is followed by the Feast of Tabernacles [15th to 22nd days of 7th month]). Hezekiah gave 1,000 bulls and 7,000 sheep for offerings; officials gave 1,000 bulls and 10,000 sheep. Whole assembly of Judah and the whole assembly out of Israel and the resident aliens from Israel and Judah rejoiced. Great joy in Jerusalem. Nothing like this (two week festival? reuniting of the people? centralized Passover?) since the time of Solomon (2 Chr 30:26; cf. 2 Chr 35:18 on Josiah's  Passover). Priests and Levites blessed the people and their prayer came to heaven.

 

Vannutelli 206

31:1 The Passover celebration is followed by reform. All Israel destroyed pillars, sacred poles, high places, and altars in Judah, Benjamin, Ephraim, and Manasseh.

31:2-10 Hezekiah appointed divisions of priests and Levites (cf. Solomon in 2 Chr 8:14) and gave contributions for burnt offerings (cf. donations by Persian kings in Ezra 6:9; 7:21-23). People also gave the tithe from third month (Pentecost) to seventh month (Tabernacles). Chief priest Azariah was of the house of Zadok (cf. 2 Chr 26:17, where a priest by the same name ( = his grandfather? [papponomy]) is mentioned under Uzziah).  He assured Hezekiah that the priests had plenty of food because of the people’s generosity (cf. generosity for tabernacle Exod 36:2-7; and for the temple 1 Chr 29:6-9).

18:4-8 Hezekiah removed high places, pillars, and sacred poles (Deut 7:5; 12:3). Destroyed bronze serpent (Nehushtan) that Moses had made and to which people were making offerings. No king trusted in Yahweh like him either earlier or later. He kept the commandments of Moses. He s against the king of Assyria and attacked the Philistines as far as Gaza.

31:11-21 Two leading Levites and ten assistants put in charge of temple storage chambers, where contributions to clergy were kept. Kore son of Imnah and six assistants were in charge of distributing contributions in outlying cities. Priests were enrolled by their families and the Levites (from 20 years; 30 in 1 Chr 23:3; 25 in Num 8:24) by their duties. Hezekiah did what was good, upright, and true. He sought his God with all his heart and prospered.

 

 

Vannutelli 203

18:9-12 In the 4th year of Hezekiah (=7th of Hoshea), Shalmaneser V attacked Samaria and took it after 3 years =6th of Hezekiah and 9th of Hoshea). King of Assyria carried Israelites to Assyria because they had transgressed covenant and all that Moses had commanded. Cf. 2 Kgs 17:5-8.

2 Chronicles 32

Isaiah 36

2 Kgs 18

Vannutelli 207

1 After these acts of faithfulness [Passover, reform, and appointment of cultic officials], Sennacherib came and thought he would win fortified cities for himself.

v 1   In 14th year of Hezekiah [701; conflicts with 2 Kgs 18:1 where Hezekiah came to the throne in Hoshea’s 3rd year and with 2 Kgs 18:10 where the attack on Samaria in the sixth year of Hezekiah], Sennacherib came against the fortified cities of Judah and captured them

Source A 18:13-16

v. 13 Same as Isaiah.

2-8 Hezekiah concealed water supply, strengthened himself, and rebuilt wall and the Millo (1 Chr 11:8) in the city of David. Spoke encouragingly to commanders he had appointed. "Be strong and of good courage." With Sennacherib is an arm of flesh; Yahweh is with us to help us and fight our wars. The people relied on the words of Hezekiah.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(18:21 Rabshakeh accuses them of trusting in Egypt and relying on it)

 

 

14-16 Hezekiah offered to pay whatever Sennacherib might demand—300 talents of silver and 30 talents of gold. Hezekiah gave silver from temple and palace. Also gave gold from doors of the temple.

9 After this Sennacherib sent his servants to Jerusalem from Lachish against Hezekiah and all Judah which was in Jerusalem.

2-3 King sent Rabshakeh with a great army. Opposed to him were Eliakim, Shebna, and Joah.

Source B (1) 18:17-19:9a, 36-37

17-18 King sent Tartan [Viceroy], Rabsaris [Chief Eunuch], and Rabshakeh [Chief Butler] with a great army. Opposed to them were Eliakim, Shebnah, and Joah.

10 On what do you trust that you have begun this siege?

4 Rabshakeh: What is this trust which you trust?

19 Identical to Isaiah.

 

5-6 You are trusting Egypt that broken reed which will pierce the hand of anyone who leans on it. So is Pharaoh to all that trust in him.

20-21 Same

11-12 Is not Hezekiah misleading you, handing you over to famine and thirst, saying Yahweh will save you. Didn’t Hezekiah destroy Yahweh’s high places and altars and say that you should worship and make offerings before one altar (LXX: before this altar)?

7 If you say, "We have trusted in Yahweh," is not he the one whose high places and altars Hezekiah removed?" He said that you should worship before this altar.

22 Similar. You should worship before this altar in Jerusalem.

 

8-12 How can you repulse a single captain when you trust in Egypt? I have come at Yahweh’s direction. Officers: Speak to us in Aramaic. Rabshakeh: I want people who are on the wall to hear this. They are doomed with you to eat their own dung and drink their own urine.

23-27 Very similar.

18 They [the servants] called with a loud voice in the language of Judah to the people on the wall to frighten them so that they [the servants] might take the city.

13 Rabshakeh called with a loud voice in the language of Judah [Hebrew], "Listen to the words of the great king of Assyria."

28 Very similar

15 Do not let Hezekiah deceive you. No god of any nation has been able to save his people from my hand. How much less your God.

14 Do not let Hezekiah deceive you for he will not be able to deliver you.

29 Nearly identical.

 

15-18a Do not let Hezekiah make you trust in Yahweh. Make your peace with the king of Assyria. I will take you to a land like your own.

 

Do not let Hezekiah mislead you

32b 30-32a Nearly identical.

 

32b Adds: A land of olive oil and honey. You will live and not die. Do not listen to Hezekiah.

13-14 Do you not know what I and my ancestors have done to the peoples of other lands? The gods of the nations whom my ancestors utterly destroyed were unable to save them. Your God will not be able to save you.

18-20 Has any of the gods of the nations saved their land? Where are the gods of Hamath and Arpad? Where are the gods of Sepharvaim? Have they delivered Samaria out of my hand? Yahweh will not save Jerusalem.

33-35

Rest = very similar to Isaiah

16-17, 19 His servants said more against Yahweh and Hezekiah his servant. They also wrote contemptuous letters against Yahweh the God of Israel. Just as the gods of the nations did not rescue their people from my hands, so the God of Hezekiah will not deliver his people from my hand. They spoke of the God of Jerusalem as if he were the work of human hands.

 

 

 

 

 

20:35 Who among all the gods of the countries have delivered their countries out of my hand, that the Lord should deliver Jerusalem out of my hand.

21-22 The people refused to answer him on orders from the king. Eliakim, Shebna, and Joah told Hezekiah the words of Rabshakeh.

36-37 Nearly identical.

 

Vannutelli 208

37:1-7 Hezekiah went to the temple and sent a delegation to Isaiah, telling him of the Rabshakeh’s mockery of God. Isaiah: the king of Assyria will hear a rumor and return home and fall by the sword in his own land.

19:1-7 Nearly identical.

 

Vannutelli 209

37:8-9a Rabshakeh returned to the king of Assyria at Libnah. The king of Assyria heard about Tirhakah of Cush.

19:8-9a Nearly identical

 

37:9b-13 King sent another message to Hezekiah saying that none of the gods of the nations had delivered them.

Source B (2) 19:9b-35

19:9b-13 Nearly identical

Vannutelli 210

20 Hezekiah and Isaiah (Isaiah appears only here and in v. 32 during this incident in Chronicles) prayed and cried to heaven.

37:14-20 Hezekiah took king’s letter to house of Yahweh. Hezekiah prayed that Yahweh would spare them so that all the kingdoms might know that Yahweh alone is God.

19:14-19 Nearly identical

 

Vannutelli 211

37:21-35 Isaiah sent poetic oracle to Hezekiah; it taunted the king of Assyria. From Jerusalem a remnant shall go out and from Zion a band of survivors. King of Assyria will not shoot an arrow or set up a siege. I [Yahweh] will defend this city for my own sake and for the sake of David

19:20-34 Nearly identical

21a Yahweh sent an angel who cut off all the mighty warriors.

Vannutelli 212

37:36 That night the angel of Yahweh smote 185,000 in the Assyrian camp.

19:35 Very similar.

32:21-23 Sennacherib returned in disgrace to his own land. When the king came to the house of his god, some of his sons killed him with the sword (This happened 20 years later). Yahweh saved (1 Chr 18:6, 13) Hezekiah and the Jerusalemites from Sennacherib. He gave them rest. Many nations brought him tribute and he was exalted in the sight of the nations.

37:37-38 Sennacherib left and returned to Nineveh. While he was worshipping in temple of Nisroch, his sons Adrammelech and Sharezer killed him with the sword and escaped to Ararat. Esar-haddon succeeded him.

Source B (1) Continued

19:36-37 Nearly identical

Vannutelli 213

32:24 Hezekiah deathly sick. Yahweh answered his prayer and gave him a sign.

38:1-3 When Hezekiah was deathly sick, Isaiah came to him and told him to get his house in order for he would die. Hezekiah reminded God of his own faithfulness, and he cried.

20:1-3 Nearly identical.

Vannutelli 214

38:4-8, 21-22

vv. 4-6 parallel to 2 Kgs 20:4-6aba

 

 

vv. 21-22 parallel to 20:7-8

 

 

 

vv. 7-8 parallel to 20:9-11.

20:4-11

vv. 4-6aba Yahweh sent Isaiah back to tell Hezekiah that he had healed him, and that he would return to the temple on the third day. Promised that he would give him 15 more years and defend city

v. 6bb for his own sake and for the sake of David.

vv. 7-8 Isaiah applied lump of figs to Hezekiah’s boil

Hezekiah asked for sign that Yahweh would heal him and that he would return to temple on third day.

vv. 9-11 The shadow on sundial retreated ten intervals.

38:9-20 Hezekiah’s poetic song of thanksgiving.

Vannutelli 215

32:25-30 Hezekiah did not respond properly for his heart was proud. Wrath came on him and on Judah and Jerusalem. Then Hezekiah humbled himself. (7:14; 12:1-12; 30:11). Hezekiah was rich, made treasuries for silver, gold and other items  and provided cities for himself (cf. 2 Kgs 20:13). He closed upper outlet of waters of Gihon (Siloam tunnel?)

Vannutelli 216

32:31 With regard to officials of Babylon, where were sent to inquire about the sign had been done in the land, God tested him in order to know what was in his heart..

39:1-2 Merodach-baladan (independent ruler in Babylon in 721-09 and 705-03) sent envoys, and Hezekiah showed him many treasures

20:12-13 Very similar

Vannutelli 217

39:3-8 Isaiah criticized Hezekiah for showing envoys his possessions. Isaiah: Isaiah: All this shall be carried to Babylon. Some of your sons shall be eunuchs for king of Babylon. Hezekiah thought: There will be peace and security in my days.

20:14-19 Very similar.

Vannutelli 218

32:32-33 Rest of his acts and his good deeds are written in the vision of the prophet Isaiah [cf. 1 Chr 29:29; 2 Chr 9:29] in the Book of the Kings of Judah and Israel. Hezekiah buried on the ascent to the tombs of the descendants of David. All Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem did him honor at his death. Manasseh succeeded him.

 

20:20-21 Rest of his acts and all his might and how he made the pool and the conduit and brought water into the city. Are they not written in Book of Annals of the Kings of Judah. Manasseh succeeded him.