Israel: Tribal Period through United Kingdom
1200-931 BCE




Syria and Phoenicia


20. Dynasty

Setnakhte 1186-1184

Izbet Sartah Ostracon 12c
early form of ABC's

IZBET.JPG (23690 bytes)


Enlil-kudur-usur 1197-1193 son of Tukulti-Ninurta I; his predecessor was his nephew

Ninurta-apil-Ekur 1192-1180 king of Assyria

Meli-Shipak, 33rd Kassite king of Babylon 1186-1172

Kudurru of Meli-Shipak

Ramesses III 1184-1152 ANET 260-263; ANEP 344-348


ramthre2.jpg (8284 bytes)

Ramesses III


Harem conspiracy COS 3.8, pp.  27-30; ANET 214-216

Libyan, Nubian, Syrian, Shasu, and Hittite captives

Ramesses III
Battle with the Philistines

PHILBAT.JPG (202302 bytes)

Funerary temple of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu above and reconstruction below

Ramesses III welcomed by god Shu

SEAPEOP.JPG (179893 bytes)

Invasions of the Sea Peoples

Papyrus Harris By Megaera Lorenz
R to L:  Ramesses III, Ptah, Sekhmet, Nefertem their son.

Ramesses III smites a Philistine

Ashur-Dan I 1179-1134

Marduk-apla-iddina I, 34th Kassite king of Babylon 1171-1159

Zababa-shum-iddina Kassite king of Babylon

Elamite raid on Babylon 1158 Carried off Code of Hammurabi to Susa

Enlil-nadin-ahi, 36th Kassite king of Babylon 1157-1155

Second dynasty of Isin 1158-1027

Ramesses IV 1152-1146 ANET 378-379 Harris Papyrus containing many Semitic names; subordination of royal power to divine power. See also Harris Papyrus.

Ramesses IV

Ramesses V 1146-1142 brother of Ramesses IV

Ramesses V

Ramesses VI 1142-1134

Ramesses VI

Ramesses VII 1134-1133

Ramesses VIII 1133-1126 Son of Ramesses III

TRIBES.JPG (438824 bytes)

Division of land to the twelve tribes









Re-Horakhty leads Ramesses VII



















Ninurat-tukulti-Ashur 1133
Mutakkil-Nusku 1133

Assur-resha-ishi I 1132-1115 engaged in war with Babylonia

Ninurta-nadin-shumi 1132-1127 3rd king of Second Dynasty of Isin 


Ramesses IX 1126-1107

nmsrames.jpg (5201 bytes)
Ramesses IX making an offering

Ramesses IX



Battle of Deborah 1120 (Judges 5)


Nebuchadrezzar I 1126-1105 (B)  4th king of Second Dynasty of Isin.   Enuma elish composed at this time, and Marduk becamse supreme god of the pantheon

Tiglath-pileser I 1114-1076 Assyrian king; first encounter with Arameans ANET 274-275 "28 times I crossed the Euphrates to chase the Arameans"

compiling of Middle Assyrian laws



Ramesses X 1107-1098

Cartouche of Ramesses X

Ramesses X presents Eye of Horus to
the Sun god



Enlil-nadin-apli, fifth king of second dynasty of Isin 1104-1101

Marduk-nadin-ahhe, 6th king of Second Dynasty of Isin 1100-1083

Ramesses XI 1098-1069
Revolt in Upper Egypt

Ramesses XI

Herihor, high priest of Amun, ruled alongside Ramesses; wife of Herihor was Nodjmet, who was called "king's mother."

Nodjmet and Herihor

El Khadr Arrowheads COS 2.84, p.  221 early alphabetic writing


Marduk-shapik-zeri, 7th king of Second Dynasty of Isin 1082-1070

Ashared-apil-Ekur Assyrian king 1075-1074

Ashur-bel-kala Assyrian king 1073-1056

The Third Intermediate 21st - 24th Dynasties

21. Dynasty 1069-945 -- division of Egypt:  northern capital at Tanis; southern capital at Thebes

Smendes I 1069-1043 (1080-1069) mentioned by Wen-Amon; ruled in Delta

Pinudjem 1054-1032 (Thebes)

Amenemnisu son of Smendes 1043-1039



Tale of Wen-Amon ANET 25-29; COS 1.41, pp. 89-93 meets charismatic "prophet" in Byblos

WENAMUN.JPG (401892 bytes)
Prophetic trance in Wen-Amon; hieratic top and hieroglyphic bottom



Eriba-Adad II 1055-1054 Assyrian king

Shamshi-Adad IV Assyrian king 1053-1050  son of Tiglath-pileser I; deposed Eriba Adad II

Ashur-nasir-pal I 1049-1031 son of Shamshi-Adad IV

Shalmaneser II 1030-1019 Assyrian king; son of Shamshi-Adad IV

Marduk-ahhe-eriba, 9th king of Second Dynasty of Isin 1047


United Kingdom in Israel



Psusennes I 1039-991 son of Pinudjem; married to his sister Mutnodjmet (tomb was not ravaged)

PSUSENN1.JPG (89049 bytes)

Psusennes I

Saul ca. 1025-05

Saul's battles with Zobah and Beth-Rehob 1 Sam 14:47 (drawn from 2 Samuel 8?)

Nabu-shumu-libur, 11th king of Second Dynasty of Isin 1034-1027

Ashur-nirari IV 1018-1013

Ashur-rabi II 1012-972 uncle of his predecessor

Eulmash-shakin-shumi, king of Babylon 1005-989

Ashur-resh-ishi II, king of Babylon 972-967


Eshbaal (Ish-bosheth) 1005-1004

Abi-ba'al, king of Tyre

Babylonian and Assyrian weakness 1000-748

David king at Hebron 1005-998

Ahirom king of Byblos, 1000 BCE,   COS 2.55. p.  181 ANET 504, 661; ANEP 456-459

Ahirom sarcophagus

"The sarcophagus that Ittobaal, son of Ahirom, the king of Byblos, made for Ahirom, his father....

Tiglath-pileser II 967-935


David captures Jerusalem 998


Nabu-mukin-apli, Babylonian king of dynasty E 979-944

Amenemope 993-984

Amenope.jpg (156175 bytes)

Osorkon the Elder 984-978

Siamun 978-959--captured Gezer and gave his daughter to Solomon as a wife.

Scarab of Siamun


David king at Jerusalem 998-965

Davefam.jpg (530822 bytes)

Family Tree of David

10c inscription from Khirbet Qeiyafa
Biblical Netaim 1 Chr 4:23

Public Building in the City of David in 10c

Abibaal king of Tyre
Hiram I king of Tyre 980-946 (969-936)

Ittobaal of Byblos (see Ahirom above)
Yahimilk of Byblos, 950 BCE, COS 2.29, pp.  146-147 ANET 499, 653-654;

Hadadezer king of Beth-Rehob and Zobah 2 Sam 8:3-8

Ashur-resha-ishi II 971-967

Tiglath-pileser II Assyrian king 966-935

Ninurta-kudurri-usur II Babylonian king of dynasty of E 944

Mar-biti-ahhe-iddina third ruler of dynasty of E 943-


Neo-Assyrian Period 934-610

Psusennes II 959-945

22. Dynasty 945-715 -- Libyan rule over Egypt


Temple at Ain Dara and gigantic footprints of god from this temple

Temples and cult objects from Syria-Palestine-Israel



Solomon 965-931/30

Building of Temple 962-955

SOL2TEMP.JPG (178739 bytes)


SOLDIST.JPG (301673 bytes)

Solomon's Administrative Districts

Yahwist (J) source in the Pentateuch (date contested)


Baalazor I of Tyre ca. 950

Rezon son of Eliada of Damascus (1 Kgs 11:23-25) and Hadad the Edomite (1 Kgs 11:14-16) are opponents of Solomon.  Hadad marries Tahpenes, Pharaoh's sister-in-law.  1 Kgs 11:17-22


Model (left) of Temple at Tainat

Drawing of Temple at Tell Tainat

Model of Jerusalem at the
time of Solomon

Asshur-Dan II king of Assyria 934-912




Fortress cities and gates at Hazor


 Megiddo (1 Kgs 9:15)

Comparison of Ain Dara and Solomonic temples




Syria and Phoenicia