Amon to the Exile in Chronicles and Kings

A Synopsis by Ralph W. Klein

© Ralph W. Klein 2000, 2003, 2006

2 Chronicles

2 Kings

Vannutelli 221

33:21-25 Amon was 22 when he began to reign; ruled for two years. He did evil as his father Manasseh had done. He sacrificed to all images his father Manasseh had made. He did not humble himself as Manasseh humbled himself. His servants killed him in his house. The people of the land in turn killed the conspirators and made his son Josiah king.

21:19-24 Very similar. Name of his mother was Meshullemeth daughter of Haruz of Jotbah. He served the idols his father served. V. 22: He abandoned Yahweh the God of his fathers and did not walk in the way of Yahweh.


21:25-26 Rest of the acts of Amon…are they not written in the book of the Annals of the kings of Judah? And he was buried in his grave in the garden of Uzza (cf. 2 Kgs 21:18), and Josiah his son reigned in his stead.

Vannutelli 222

34:1-2 Josiah became king at 8 and reigned for 31 years. Walked in ways of David (also said of Asa and Hezekiah), not turning aside to right or left (cf. Deut 17:20).

22:1-2 Similar. Walked in all the way of David. Plus: And the name of his mother was Jedidah, daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath (near Lachish).

Vannutelli 224

34:3-7 Purging of the land.  In his eighth year he began to seek the God of his ancestor David (Hezekiah’s reforms came in his first year); in his 12th year he began to purge Judah and Jerusalem of high places, sacred poles (asherim), carved and cast images. Also altars of the Baals. He scattered dust on the graves of the idolaters and burned the bones of the priests on their altars [2 Kgs 23:16; hence, by implication, they were killed by him; cf. 2 Kgs 10; 23:20]. Reforms also in towns of Manasseh, Ephraim, Simeon, and Naphtali (Cf. Asa, in whose reign there were refugees from Ephraim, Manasseh, and Simeon, 2 Chr 15:9; Hezekiah, whose passover was attended by representatives of Asher, Ephraim, Issachar,  Manasseh, and Zebulun, 2 Chr 30:11, 18). Josiah demolished all the incense altars throughout all the land of Israel. Then he returned to Jerusalem (2 Kgs 23:20).



Parallel comments in chap 23:

23:6 he brought out the Asherah from the house of Yahweh to the Wadi Kidron.

23:6 he threw its dust on the grave of the common people.

23:16 He took the bones from the tombs and burned them on the altar


23:20 then he returned to Jerusalem.

Vannutelli 222

34:8-11 In his 18th year, after purifying the land and the house, he sent Shaphan, Maaseiah, the governor of the city (2 Chr 18:25), and Joah, the recorder, to repair the house of Yahweh. They took money to the high priest Hilkiah, which the Levites, the keepers of the threshold (1 Chr 9:19-22; 2 Chr 23:4), had collected from Manasseh, Ephraim, and all the remnant of Israel, and from all Judah and Benjamin and the inhabitants of Jerusalem. Funds were given to various workers for the buildings that the kings of Judah [Ahaz, Manasseh, and Amon?] had let go to ruin.

22:3-20 Discovery of Book of Torah Report

22:3-6 Similar. Only Shaphan [the secretary] is sent with instructions for Hilkiah.

The keepers of the threshold had collected the money from "the people."


No mention of negligence of kings of Judah.


22:7 No accounting demanded for money for "they" dealt honestly.

34:12-14 Levites worked in oversight and in music. While they were bringing out money, Hilkiah found the book of the law of Yahweh given through Moses [= Pentateuch?].


34:15-21 Hilkiah gave the book to Shaphan the secretary. Shaphan told the king that the work that had been assigned was being accomplished and he read [parts of] the book to the king. King rent his clothes and sent Hilkiah, Ahikam (father of Gedaliah, 2 Kgs 25:22), Abdon, Shaphan, and Asaiah to "inquire for me and for those who were left in Israel and in Judah about the words in the book." Wrath from Yahweh would come since words of the book had not been kept by the ancestors.

22:8-13 Similar. Modern scholars identify the book found in 2 Kings as proto- Deuteronomy. Shaphan read book when Hilkiah gave it to him and also read it to the king.

Achbor instead of Abdon.

…inquire for me and for the people and for all Judah

Vannutelli 223

34:22-28 Five messengers went to Huldah, the prophetess, who gave them a first divine oracle: I will bring upon this place all the curses written in the book [Deut 27:9-26; 28:15-68]. They forsook me and made offerings to other gods. My wrath will not be quenched. Another oracle to the king: Because you were penitent and humbled yourself before God, I have heard you. You shall be gathered to your grave in peace [but Josiah died of battle wounds according to 35:23-24; in peace may mean that it will not live to see the disaster coming on Judah]. Your eyes will not see all the disaster I will bring on this place and on its inhabitants.

22:14-20 Similar.


v. 16 all the words of the book

…before Yahweh [LXX before my face]

lacks: its inhabitants

Vannutelli 224

34:29-32 King gathered the elders and went to the temple with all the people of Judah, the priests and the Levites, etc. He read in their hearing all the words of the book of the covenant. King made a covenant to follow Yahweh to perform the words of the covenant. He made all the people found in Jerusalem and in Benjamin stand, and they acted according to the covenant of God, the God of their ancestors. Covenant follows reform.

23:1-24 Reform Report

23:1-3 Similar.
the priests and the prophets

The king stood by the pillar (2 Kgs 11:13-14)

Cf. Joshua at Shechem (Josh 8:3-35)


…to establish the words of the covenant.

All the people joined in the covenant. The covenant prompted the reform described in the following verses.

34:33 Josiah removed all the abominations from the lands of the Israelites, and made all in Israel worship Yahweh their God. All his days they did not turn from after Yahweh the God of their ancestors.



23:4-14 King commanded officials to bring out of Yahweh’s temple all the vessels made for Baal, for Asherah, and for all the host of heaven and he burned them in fields of the Kidron. The ashes were carried to Bethel. He deposed idolatrous priests and those who made offerings to Baal, to the sun, the moon, the constellations, and all the host of the heavens. He destroyed image of Asherah and threw its dust upon the graves of the common people. He broke down houses of the male cult prostitutes in the house of Yahweh, where the women did weaving for Asherah. He brought all the priests out of the towns of Judah and defiled their high places. The priests of the high places did not come up to the altar of Yahweh in Jerusalem. He defiled Topheth, which is in the valley of Ben-hinnom, so that no one would make a son or a daughter pass through fire as an offering to Molech. He removed the horses that the kings of Judah had dedicated to the sun. The altars on the roof of the upper chamber of Ahaz and the altars that Manasseh had made he pulled down and threw the rubble into the Wadi Kidron. The king defiled the high places east of Jerusalem, which Solomon had built for Astarte, the abomination of the Sidonians, for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab, and for Milcom, the abomination of the Ammonites (1 Kgs 11:5-7). He broke the pillars in pieces, cut down the sacred poles (asherim), and covered the sites with human bones.



34:5 and the bones of the priests he burned on their altars.




34:7 Then he returned to Jerusalem.

23:15-20 He pulled down the altar at Bethel, built by Jeroboam, and its high place. He took the bones out of the tombs and burned them on the altar and defiled it, according to the word of Yahweh that the man of God proclaimed when Jeroboam stood by the altar at the festival and he turned and lifted up his eyes toward the grave of the man of God (italicized words only in LXX; 1 Kings 13). Josiah did not disturb the tomb of the man of God.

Josiah removed all the shrines of the high places in the towns of Samaria. He slaughtered on the altars all the priests of the high places and burned human bones on them. Then he returned to Jerusalem.


Vannutelli 225

2 Chr 35:1 Josiah kept a Passover in Jerusalem. They slaughtered the Passover on the 14th day of the first month.

1 Esd. 1:1 Identical

2 Kgs 23:21 The king commanded people to keep the Passover as prescribed in the book of the covenant.

35:2-17 The Levites had deposited the ark (emendation; MT: deposit [imperative] the ark) in the temple at the time of Solomon (2 Chr 5:9) and henceforth they taught Israel. David and Solomon established duties of the Levites. The slaughter of the animals followed the instructions of Moses. The king and other officials contributed 41,400 animals (there were 19,000 at Hezekiah’s Passover). The Levites killed and skinned the animals, and the priests manipulated the blood. The people of Israel who were present kept the Passover and the feast of Unleavened Bread.

1:2-17 [1:2-19] Very similar.







Omits 2 Chr 35:11-12a


Vannutelli 227

35:18 No Passover like it since the days of the prophet Samuel [1 Chr 6:13, 18 (28, 33); 9:22; 11:3; 26:28; 29:29); first Passover with leading role of Levites?]. Present were priests, Levites, all Judah and Israel, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem.

1:18-19 [20-21] Very similar

23:22 No Passover like it since days of the judges [first centralized Passover].

35:19 Passover held in 18th year

1:20 [22] Identical

23:23 Identical


1:21-22 [23-24] And the deeds of Josiah were upright (cf. Sir 49:4). In ancient times the events of his reign have been recorded—concerning those who sinned and acted wickedly beyond any other people and how they grieved the Lord so that the words of the Lord fell upon Israel.


Vannutelli 228

2 Par 35:19a-19d. See Ralph W. Klein, "New Evidence for an Old Recension of Reigns," HTR 60 (1967): 93-105. Borrowed from an old recension of Reigns (Kings LXX).


23:24-27 Josiah put away mediums, wizards, teraphim, idols, and abominations. He established the words of the law written in the book found by Hilkiah. There was no king like Josiah either before him or after him. Yahweh’s anger was not turned away because of provocations of Manasseh. Yahweh: I will remove Judah as I removed Israel.

Vannutelli 229

35:20 Neco (610-595; some 12 years have passed) went up to fight at Carchemish [modern conclusion: on behalf of Assyria] and Josiah went out against him.

1:23 [25] Similar

23:29aba Pharaoh Neco came up against the king of Assyria on the Euphrates, and king Josiah went to meet him

35:21 Neco: What have I to do with you, king of Judah? God has commanded me to hurry. Cease opposing God who is with me so that he will not destroy you.

1:24-25 [26-27] Similar


35:22 Josiah did not turn away, but disguised himself (cf. 1 Kgs 22:30). He did not listen to words of Neco from the mouth of God. (Hence Josiah died young).  Josiah joined battle at Megiddo.

1:26-27a [28-29a] Similar.

He did not listen to words of Jeremiah the prophet!


35:23-24 Archers shot the king, who asked his servants to take him away (Cf. 1 Kgs 22:34). They brought him in a chariot to Jerusalem, where he died (last king to die in Jerusalem). He was buried in the tombs of his ancestors. All Judah and Jerusalem mourned.

1:27b-30a [29b-32a] The commanders came down against Josiah. King: Take me away for I am weak. He was brought back to Jerusalem where he died and was buried in the tomb of his ancestors. In all Judea they mourned for Josiah.

23:29bb -30a and he killed him at Megiddo when he saw him (executed?). His servants carried him dead in a chariot from Megiddo, brought him to Jerusalem, and buried him in his own tomb.

35:25 Jeremiah uttered a lament for Josiah, and all the singers have spoken of Josiah in their laments to this day. These are recorded in the Laments (the biblical book of Lamentations?).

1:30b-31a [32b-33a] Similar. These things are written in the book of the histories of the kings of Judea.


35:26 Rest of Josiah’s acts and his faithful deeds according to the Torah (= Pentateuch) are written in the book of the kings of Israel and Judah.

1:31b [33b] Similar. Written in the book of the histories of the kings of Judea.  His understanding of the law of the Lord…The things that he had done...are recorded in the book of the kings of Israel and Judah.





23:28 Rest of acts of Josiah are written in the Book of the Annals of the kings of Judah.

(The location of this verse in Kings before the account of his death in vv. 29-30[!] tends to de-emphasize the contrast between the piety of Josiah at the Passover and his subsequent death.

Vannutelli 230

36:1-4 People of the land (cf. 33:25) made Jehoahaz king. He was 23 years old and ruled for 3 months. King of Egypt deposed him and imposed heavy tribute (6700 pounds of silver and 67 pounds of gold). Eliakim, brother of Jehoahaz, became king with name of Jehoiakim. Neco took Jehoahaz to Egypt.

1:32-36 [34-38] Similar.





Jehoiakim put the nobles in prison and seized his brother Zarius and brought him back from Egypt.

23:30b-34 Similar. They also anointed Jehoahaz. His mother’s name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. He did what was evil like his ancestors.
Neco confined him at Riblah and imposed heavy tribute. Neco made Eliakim, son of Josiah, king and changed his name to Jehoiakim. Jehoahaz taken to Egypt where he died

2 Par 36:4a Borrowed from an old recension of Reigns.


23:35 Jehoiakim taxed the land to pay Pharaoh.

36:5 Jehoiakim became king at 25 and ruled for 11 years. He did what was evil.

2 Par 36:5 adds materials unique to 2 Kings = Borrowed from an old recension of Reigns.

1:37 [39] Similar.

23:36-37 Similar. Name of his mother was Zebidah daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah. Evil…just as all his ancestors had done.

2 Par 36:5a Borrowed from an old recension of Reigns (Kings LXX)


24:1a In his days Nebuchadnezzar came up.

Vannutelli 231

36:6-7 Nebuchadnezzar (605-562) came up against him and bound him in fetters to take him to Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar also put temple vessels (1 Chr 28:14-17; 2 Chr 4:19-22; 36:18; Ezr 1:7-11) in his temple in Babylon.

1:38-39 [40-41] Similar.


2 Par 36:5a-d Borrowed from an old recension of Reigns (Kings LXX).  The Chronicler would not  blame the collapse of the kingdom on Manasseh since he had repented.


24:1b-4 Jehoiakim served Nebuchadnezzar 3 years and then rebelled. Yahweh sent bands from neighboring nations to destroy Judah. This resulted from the sins of Manasseh.

36:8 Rest of acts of Jehoiakim and his abominations are written in the Book of the Kings of Israel and Judah. Jehoiachin succeeded him.

1:40-41 [42-43a] Things that are reported about Jehoiakim and his uncleanness and impiety, are written in the annals of the kings. Jehoiachin succeeded him

24:5-6 Similar. No mention of abominations. Written in Book of the Annals of the Kings of Judah.



24:7 The king of Egypt did not come again out of his land, for the king of Babylon had taken everything from the  Wadi of Egypt to the Euphrates.

Vannutelli 232

36:9 Jehoiachin became king at 8 and reigned for 3 months and 10 days. He did what was evil.

1:41b-42 [43b-44] Similar.

24:8-9 Similar. Became king at 18 and reigned 3 months. Name of his mother was Nehushta daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem. Evil…just as his father had done.

36:10 In spring Nebuchadnezzar brought him to Babylon and replaced him with Zedekiah his brother (cf. 1 Chr 3:15-16).

1:43-44a [45-46a] Similar

24:10-17 Nebuchadnezzar besieged city. Jehoiachin taken prisoner. Nebuchadnezzar carried off treasures. 10,000 (v. 14; in v. 16 = 8,000) taken captive, leaving only the poor. King’s mother and wives also went into exile. Made Mattaniah king and changed his name to Zedekiah.

Vannutelli 233

36:11-13a Zedekiah became king at 21 and reigned for 11 years. He did evil and did not humble himself before Jeremiah. Rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar, who made him swear by God.

1:44b-46a [46b-48a] Similar

24:18-20 (Jer 52:1-3) Similar. His mother’s name was Hamutal daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. Yahweh expelled Jerusalem and Judah from his presence.

Vannutelli 234

36:13b-17 He hardened his heart against turning to Yahweh. Priests and people were also unfaithful. They followed abominations of the nations and polluted the temple. In compassion God sent messengers, but they were mocked. Wrath of God so great that there was no remedy (cf. 2 Chr 7:14). Yahweh brought up king of the Chaldeans who killed their youth in the sanctuary. All people given into his hand.

1:46b-50 [48b-53] Similar.


Jer 52:4-16 Very similar

Jer 39:1-10 Similar, but generally shorter.


v. 3 Babylonian officials sat in the middle gate: Nergal-sharezer, Samgar-nebo, Sarsechim, Nergal-sharezer the Rabmag. When Zedekiah the king of Judah saw them….

Vannutelli 235

2 Kgs 25:1-12 Final siege of Jerusalem. Zedekiah tried to escape but was captured and brought to Riblah. Sons of king killed and he was blinded and taken to Babylon. Nebuzaradan burned the temple and other buildings. Many captives taken, leaving the poorest to be vine dressers and tillers of the soil.

Vannutelli 236 See below

2 Chr 36:18 Temple vessels and various treasuries brought to Babylon.

1:51 [54] Similar


Vannutelli 235 continued

2 Chr 36:19 They burned the temple and tore down the wall of Jerusalem and destroyed all its precious vessels.

1:52-53a [55-56a] Similar


2 Chr 36:20-21 He exiled the survivors to Babylon. They became servants until the establishment of the Persian empire. To fulfill the word of Jeremiah (25:11-12; 29:10), the land kept Sabbath for 70 years.

1:53b-55 [56a-58] Similar


Jer 52:17-23 Similar


Vannutelli 236

25:13-17 Pillars and temple furnishings destroyed and/or taken to Babylon.

Jer 52:24-27 Similar


Vannutelli 237

25:18-21 various people taken captive or executed.

Jer 52:28-30 (40:5-9; 41:1-18)


Vannutelli 238

25:22-26 Gedaliah appointed as administrator. Ishmael assassinated Gedaliah and those who were with him. The remaining people fled to Egypt.



Vannutelli 239

25:27-30 In Jehoiachin’s 37th year, Evil-merodach released him. Jehoiachin put aside prison uniform and ate at the king’s table.

Vannutelli 240

2 Chr 36:22-23 In the first year of Cyrus, to fulfill word of Jeremiah, Yahweh stirred up the spirit of Cyrus. Cyrus issued a decree: Yahweh has commissioned me to build a temple in Jerusalem. Let the people go up.

1 Esd 2:1-5 Similar

Ezr 1:1-3aa Similar