Judah (Hezekiah 726-697/6 [continued] to the beginning of Josiah 640-609)

Last updated: March 30, 2014




Bakenrenef [Bocchoris] (24) 720-715 Burned alive by Shabaka. 

Shabaka (25) 716-702
25th or Nubian dynasty--situated beyond third cataract of the Nile.  Handed over to Assyrians Yamani, the exiled king of Ashdod.


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Belonging to Hezekiah (the son of) Ahaz, king of Judah Winged solar disk and two ankh symbols.


Shabaka Stone containing Memphite Theology  Memphis Triad:  Ptah, Sekhmet, and Nefertem

Stone copy of a papyrus from the Old Kingdom

Hezekiah (cont.) 726-697/96

Belonging to Jehozarah son of Hilkiah, servant of Hezekiah

Azariah son of Jehoah, the servant of Hezekiah

Belonging to Domla, the servant of Hezekiah

...servant of Hezekiah

Belonging to Eliakim the son of Hilkiah 2 Kgs 18:18

Belonging to Amariah (son of) Hananiah, the servant of Hezekiah 2 Chr 31:15

Azekah Inscription of Sargon II or Sennacherib

Shebitku (Shabataka) 702-690 joined Palestinian states in revolt; married to Amenirdis I

Amenirdis I


Taharqa 690-664 Born in Sudan.  Mentioned in 2 Kgs 19:9

ANEP 424 defeat of Egyptians at Eltekeh; Egypt later invaded by Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal. 

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Taharqa--above and below

Royal Steward Inscription, late 8c, COS 2.54; p.  180;  Isa 22:15-25

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[Shebna]iah, who is over the palace

Bulla of Shebna, servant of the king

Siloam tunnel Inscription, late 8c, ANET 321 ANEP 275; COS 2.28; pp.  145-146.  No mention of king or God

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Siloam Tunnel Inscription

Siloam Tunnel

Padi, pro-Assyrian king of Ekron, handed over to Hezekiah

Drawing of Lachish

Map of Sennacherib's Third Campaign

Model of Lachish

Colorized picture of Sennacherib's siege

Sennacherib from Nineveh

Khirbet Beit Lei Cave Inscriptions COS 2.53, pp. 179-180




Revolt of Merodach-Baladan supported by Medes, Egypt, and Judah 703

Assyria:  Sennacherib 705-681
ANET 287-288, 301; ANEP 371-374; COS 2.119A-2.119E; pp. 300-305.  Many revolts after death of Sargon II.  Sennacherib Prism
Entry in Babylonian Chronicle

Built "palace without rival" at Nineveh

Sennacheribís siege of Jerusalem ANET 287-288 (Hezekiah a prisoner, like a bird in a cage) 701

Sennacherib's Annals

Prism recording Sennacherib's 3rd campaign to
the Levant

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Sennacherib enthroned at Lachish and other reliefs

Si-Gabbar given long life because of his righteousness COS 2.59, pp. 184-185

Karatepe Inscriptions (Phoenician and Hieroglyphic) Azatiwata COS 2.21; pp.  124-126, Azatiwada COS 2.31; pp. 148-150

Bel-ibni 703-700 king of Babylon; appointed by Sennacherib

Ashur-nadin-shumi 699-694 king of Babylon, son of Sennacherib
Sennacherib had merciless war against Elamites

Nergal-ushezib, king of Babylon 694-693

Ruthless capture and destruction of Babylon by Sennacherib after a 15-month siege 689

Seal of Hadadezer COS 2.76, p. 202

Murder of Sennacherib by his son Arad-mullisu COS 3.95; p.  244. Also noted in Babylonian Chronicle

26 Dynasty -- Sais in Delta is capital; hence Saite period

Neco I 672-664  Killed for being an ally of Assyria.

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 Ekron Inscription of Akhayus (Achish), son of Padi; built temple for an Aegean goddess   680-665, COS 2.42; p. 164

Ekron Inscription

Belonging to Manasseh son of Hezekiah
king of Judah--Serious concerns have been raised about this seal's authenticity


Manasseh 697/96-642/41 2 Kgs 21:1-18//2 Chr 33:1-20

Tribute to Esarhaddon in 674 and 668. ANET 291 (Esarhaddon, ca. 673, made 22 kings, including Manasseh, transport tribute to Nineveh), 294 (Ashurbanipal was presented gifts by Manasseh and helped by him to conquer Egypt in 668/667) .

Baal I, king of Tyre 7c, treaty with Esarhaddon

Census Ostracon from Tell 'Ira

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Seal of Manasseh

Abdi-milkutti, king of Sidon, beheaded by Esarhaddon in 676


Widow's Petition

7c probably a forgery; COS 3.44, 86-87

Vassal treaty of Esarhaddon with Ramataya of Urakazabanu, ANET 534-541


Esarhaddon 681-669 ANET 289-294, 302, 303, 449-450, 533-541, 625-626; ANE 447-449; COS 2,120, p.  306

Captured Memphis in 671
Captured Urshanahuru, the son of Taharqa;  died on an Egyptian campaign in 669. His wife was Esharra-hamat
Esarhaddon conquers Sidon and beheads its king

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Esarhaddon stela from Zinjirli; Abdi Milkuti of Sidon is taller captive; Tarharqa or his son is smaller captive

Esarhaddon and the Arabs

Adon Papyrus 678/677.  Letter from Syria to the Pharaoh Tirhakhah, when Esarhaddon defeated and executed Sanduarri, king of Kindu and Sizu COS 3.54, pp. 132-134 (some date it to 604 from Ekron)

Gyges, king of Lydia 680-52, appealed to Ashurbanipal for help vs. Cimmerians.  

Belonging to Qausgabri, king of Edom


Ammonite king of 8/7c.

Yarah-azar, son of Zakir, son of Shanib





Sidonian revolt crushed 677

Esarhaddon died on campaign against Egypt  Neo-Babylonian Chronicle 1

Tanutamani  (Urdamane; nephew of Taharqa) 664-656 killed Neco I.  Provoked invasion by Ashurbanipal.

Late Period

26. Saite Dynasty

Psammetichus I 664-610 son of Neco I;  made king by Ashurbanipal.  He ended Assyrian domination in Egypt and planned campaigns in the Levant

Psammetichus I












Nathan-melech, servant of the king 2 Kgs 23:11

Belonging to (A)hikam the son of Shaphan 2 Kgs 22:12


Ashurbanipal and wife; head of king of Elam hangs from tree on left.



Rosette seal, typical of 7th . contexts in Israel.







Amon 642/641-640/639 2 Kgs 21:19-26//2 Chr 33:21-25
killed in a palace coup

Kamash-khalta, king of Moab (contemporary of Ashurbanipal)


Josiah 640/39-609 2 Kgs 22:1-23:30//2 Chr 34:1-35:26

Arslan Tash (Syria) inscription COS 2.86; pp.  222-223; ANET 658 Ashur has made an eternal covenant with us.

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Map of Josiah's Reign

Ashurbanipal 669-631 or 627. ANET 294-301, 451, 606; ANEP 450-451.
Hymns and prayers COS 1.142-145; pp.  473-476; ANET 386-387

Assyria conquered Thebes in 663
Ashurbanipal defeats western coalition, including Manasseh

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Ashurbanipal rebuilds temple of Marduk

Tribute List of Ashurbanipal


Babylon:  Shamash-shuma-ukin 667-648, brother of Asshurbanipal, was king of Babylon, and revolted in 652-648. (Did Manasseh join in this revolt?  2 Chr 33:11-13)

Kandalanu installed by Ashurbanipal 647-627





Azaliah the son of Meshullam, possibly the father of Shaphan 2 Kgs 22:3



Ashur-etel-ilani Assyrian king 626-623; killed by his twin brother and successor.  Supported by Sin-shumu-lishir, his loyal eunuch who later replaced him.

Sin-shar-ishkun 627-612