1550-1200 in the Ancient Near East

Last updated: March 30, 2014


The Levant

Asia Minor



New Kingdom 18th - 20th Dynasties





18 Dynasty -- rise of Egypt to world power.  Thebes is political, religious, and cultural center.  Family tree of this dynasty.





Ahmose 1552-1527 expelled Hyksos; married to Ahaymose Nefertiry, his sister.  He was a brother of Kamose


Shabti head of Ahmose

Queen Ahmose-Nefetari.

Amenhotep I (Amenophis) 1525-1504 (?)

Tomb biography of Ahmose of Nekheb COS 2.1, pp. 5-7 ANET 233-234

Idrimi, king of Mukish ANEP 452; COS 1.148, pp.  479-480 ANET 557-558 Text of Inscription spent seven years in Ammia in Canaan with apiru


Statue of Idrimi

Ahmose Nefertari, wife of Ahmose and mother of Amenhotep


Hittite Kings
Ammuna 1550-1530

Huzziya I 1530-1525

Telepinu 1525-1500 COS 1.76, pp. 194-198 justifies his usurpation of throne

Hittite Laws COS 2.19, pp. 106-119; ANET 188-197


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Astarte or Asherah-16c-Gezer


Burnaburiash I Kassite king of Babylonia 16c


Thuthmosis I 1507-1494 married into royal family; erected a stela on banks of the Euphrates. Ahmose, his Great Wife, daughter of Ahmose I and sister of Amenhotep I. Mother of Hatshepsut.

          Thuthmosis I

Mummified head

Thuthmosis II 1494-1490 married to Hatshepsut, the daughter of Thuthmosis I, and to Isis, his concubine and mother of Thuthmosis III.

Thuthmosis II

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Thuthmosis I

Proto-Sinaitic inscription
"Beloved of Hathor, Mistress of Turquoise"

Proto-Sinaitic, Ugaritic, and Hebrew sign chart

Six Hittite kings 1500-1430



Hantili II

Zidanta II

Huzziya II

Muwatalli I


1500 Middle Assyrian Kingdom

Hatshepsut Queen; married her half-brother Thuthmosis II 1490-1469; ANEP 388

Hatshepsut's funerary monument at Deir el-Bahri
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Hatshepsut with a beard!

Letter of Guli-Adad
to Talwashur, ruler
of Taanach


Kingdom of Mitanni, best known from archives at Nuzi and Alalakh








Burnaburiash I Kassite king of Babylon.  He made a treaty with Assyria

Middle Assyrian Laws (14c)  COS 2.132. pp.  353-360 ANET 180-188
Middle Assyrian Laws

Ashur-nirari I c. 1500, son of Ishme-Dagan II

Shamshi-Adad III, son of Ishme-Dagan II

Puzur-Ashur III ruled for 24 years; contemporary with Burnaburiash I

Enlil-Nasir I

Nur-ili 15th c; ruled for 12 years


Thutmosis III son of Thuthmosis II by a lesser wife Isis 1490-1436 ANET 22-23, 234-245, 373-375, 446-447; Annals COS 2.2A, pp.  7-13 ANET B 234-238, A-D 238-240  Gebel Barka Stela COS 2.2B, pp. 14-18 ANET C 238, D-C 240
Armant Stela COS 2.2C, pp. 18-19 ANET A 234  
ANEP 312, 313, 387

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15 campaigns in "Asia".  Confronted a herd of 120 elephants.  Prevailed over Mitanni. Conducted seven month siege of Megiddo



1468 Battle of Megiddo--120 captured towns on wall at Karnak ANET 234-238; COS 2.2A, pp.  11-13

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Thutmosis III
above and on left

List of Syro Palestinian cities from Tuthmosis III



Ashur-Rabi I early 15 century


Ashur-nadin-ahhe I mid 15c wrote to Thutmosis III



Amenhotep (Amenophis) II 1438-1412  (1427-1400?) ANEP 390-392; Memphis and Karnak Stelae COS 2.3, pp. 19-23; ANET 245-247

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Amenophis II

Hittite Empire 1430-1200

Tudhaliya I or II 1430-1410 revival of Hittite power

Anatolia 1500-700 BCE



Enlil-Nasir II 1430-1425

Ashur-Nirari II 1424-1418

Thuthmosis IV 1412-1403; married to Artatama, daughter of king of Mitanni ANE 314-316; ANEP 393

Cleared sand from Sphinx

Tuthmosis IV mummy

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Thuthmosis IV and his mother Tiaa or Tiy

Asiatics bring gifts to Thuthmosis IV

Map of Hittite Empire

Thuthmosis IV married daughter of Artatama I, king of Mitanni


Karaindash, Kassite king of Babylon ca 1413

Ashur-bel-nisheshu 1417-1409


Ashur-rim-nisheshu 1408-1401

Amenhotep (Amenophis) III 1403-1364 (1390-1352?); chief wife = Tiy ANEP 394-398, 400. Mother of Akhenaten.

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       Colossi of Memnon

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Amenophis III


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Queen Tiye, mother
of Akhenaten

In year 10 Amenophis III married Gilukhepa, the daughter of Shuttarna, the king of Mitanni.  Later he married the sister of Tushratta of Mitanni. 

Crown prince, Thutmosis V died young.

Amarna Letters ANET 483-490; COS 3.92A-G, pp.  237-242

Letters from the king of Alasiya (Cyprus) EA 35; EA 38  Amarna #35 from
Alashiya (Cyprus)

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Amarna letter from Hebron

Letter 286 of Abdu Heba from Jerusalem; letter 287

Abdi-Ashirta, Amorite leader;  his son Aziru

Rib-Haddi, ruler of Byblos

Ammishtamru I king of Ugarit ca. 1360 (contemporary with Amenophis III)

Tjuyu, mother of Tiye and
mother-in-law of Amenophis III

El Amarna Research Tool
Summaries of Amarna Letters


Arnuwanda I Hittite king 1400-1360 Gurney puts him after Tudhalia II

Tudhaliya II or III

Hattusili II Hittite king

Amenophis III married daughter of Shuttarna II, king of Mittani. Mittani reached its greatest power.





Tudhaliya III Hittite king 1360-1350






Kadashman-Harbe I, 16th Kassite king of Babylon, c. 1400.

Kurigalzu I, 17th Kassite king of Babylon early 14th c. His daughter married Amenhotep II.




Kadashmn-Enlil I, Kassite king of Babylon 1374-1360 Letter to Amenhotetp III EA 3 gave his sister to Amenophis III.  Pharaoh refused to give him his daughter:  "From of old no daughter of Egypt has been given to anyone."

Ashur-nadin-ahhe II 1400-1391



Eriba-Adad I 1390-1364



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Amenophis IV 1364-1347 (Akhenaten)

Hymn to the Aten.  COS 1.28, pp. 44-46 ANET 369-371   ANEP 402-412

New capital at Akhetaton (Amarna)


His secondary wife Kiya was the mother of Tutankhamun. 


Egypt, Sinai, Israel

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Nefertiti, wife of Akhenaten

Rib-Addi of Byblos to Akhenaten EA 75, 79, 137

Abdu-Heba, ruler of Jerusalem; supported by Nubian mercenaries 1352-1336.  Amarna #286 from Abdu-Heba
Amarna #287 from Abdu-Heba

Amarna #298 from
Yapahu of Gezer warns of insurgency

Amarna #244 from Biridiya of Megiddo complains of Lab'ayu's attacks; #365 trying to improve his standing

Amarna #365 from

Lab'ayu, ruler of Shechem justifies his behavior

Abi-milki, ruler of Tyre EA 147

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Lachish Ewer--gift to Elat = Asherah 14/13 c

Niqmaddu II 1360-30, King of Ugarit,  yearly tribute to Suppiluliuma I

Tushratta, king of Mitanni married his daughter Tadukhipa to Akhenaten; Tushratta was assassinated

Amarna letter from Tushratta to Akhenaten

Amarna #17 from
Tushratta to Amenophis III; Letter #23; Letter #26 to Tiye; Letter to Akhenaten

Suppiluliuma I Hittite king, founder of Hittite empire 1344-1322 married a daughter of Babylonian king; killed by the plague.
Treaty with Mattiwaza ANET 205-206 Destroys the Kingdom of Mitanni ANET 318  
Deeds of Suppiluliuma COS 1.74, pp. 185-192 ANET 319
Treaty with Aziru COS 2.17A, pp.  93-95
Letter to Akhenaten EA 41


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Baal at Ugarit

Ugaritic Literature:  Ba`lu Myth COS 1.86, pp. 241-274 ANET 129-142
Dawn and Dusk COS 1.87, pp. 274-283
Kirta Epic COS 1.102, pp. 333-343; ANET 142-149
'Aqhatu Legend COS 103, pp. 343-356 ANET 149-155
Repha'im Texts COS 1.105, pp. 357-358
Prayer for a City under Siege COS 1.88, pp. 283-285; COS 1.90-1.97, pp. 287-305. Incantation against Serpents and Sorcerers COS 1.100, pp. 327-328


Burnaburiash II Kassite king of Babylon 1359-1333 Letters to Akhenaten EA 7; EA 8EA 9



Karahardash, 20th Kassite king of Babylon 1333

Kurigalzu II, 22nd Kassite king of Babylon 1332-1308. Placed on the throne by Asshur-uballit I.

Asshur-uballit I 1365-1330 threw off shackles of Mitanni. letters to Amenophis IV EA 15, 16




Smenkhare 1348-1345; married to Meritaten, oldest daughter of Akhenaten

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Smenkhare and Meritaten (who had been wife of Akhenaten)




Tutankhamun 1345-1335 ANET 251-252, ANEP 318-319, 413-417, 419. Came to throne at 9 or 10

Ankhesenamun, Tut's widow, daughter of Akhenaten, demanded a husband from Suppiluliuma I.  Zennanza was murdered on his way to Egypt. Married Ankhsenamen 

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King Tut

Ay 1335-1332 (1327-1323); son of Yuya and Tuyu, the parents of Tiy, the wife of Amenophis III.  Father of Nefertiti?  Restored priests of Amun


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Ankhesenamun, Tut's widow. 

Ankhesenamun applies salve to Tut's shoulder


Yuya and Tuyu






Horemheb 1332-1306 ANEP 418.  Brought a final end to the Amarna period

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Horemheb with the goddess Hathor

Horemheb, protected by
the god Amun

Arhalbu, king of Ugarit, 1330-24


Niqmepa, king of Ugarit, 1324-1274 (queen:  Ahat-milki)



Arnuwanda II Hittite king 1322-21 also killed by plague

Mursili II Hittite king  1321-1295. Son of Suppiluma I
Plague Prayers COS 1.60, pp. 156-160 ANET 394-396
Ten Year Annals COS 2.16, pp.  82-90; Treaty with Duppi-Teshub COS 2.17B, pp.  96-98 ANET 203-205  Brought Hittites to dominant position in ANE





Enlil-nirari 1329-1320 defeated Kurigalzu II king of Karduniash

Arik-den-ili 1319-1308

Adad-nirari I 1307-1275
defeated Mitanni, records of military campaigns. Assyria resurgent.

19. Dynasty -- residence in eastern Delta; family tree

Ramesses I 1306-1305 Capital at Avaris. Appointed by Horemheb

RAMESSI.JPG (778157 bytes)
Ramesses in middle

Mummy of Ramesses I




Seti I 1305-1290
Beth-Shan stela; funerary temple at Abydos

 ANET 253-255; ANE 317; COS 2.4; pp. 23-32; ANEP 320-331, 422

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Seti I mummy

Hathor and Seti I

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Stele of Seti I from Beth

setiibs.jpg (37340 bytes)

Lachish ewer 13c




Muwatalli II Hittite king 1295-1272 ANET 319 made peace with Seti I. Fought against Ramses II at the battle of Qadesh

Seal of Muwatalli II

Kadashman-Turgu, 24th Kassite king of Babylon, 1281-1264





Ramesses II 1290-1224 (1304-1237) married to Nefertari, Istonefret (mother of Merneptah) and many others; Beth-Shan Stela

Ramesseum--mortuary temple in western Thebes

ANET 199-201, 256-258

Papyrus Anastasi I ANET 475-479; ANEP 321, 333-339, 420; Craft of the Scribe COS 3.2, pp.  9-14

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Treaty of Ramesses II with Hattusili III at Karnak 1261above and at Hattusa below.  Latter is Egyptian version written in Akkadian

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Letter from Ramesses requesting marriage with daughter of Hattusili III


Lawsuit over a Syrian slave COS 3.10, pp.  31-32; ANET 216-217

Rock temple at Abu Simbel

A Report of Escaped Laborers COS 3.4, p. 16 ANET 259

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Ramesses II

Battle of Kadesh against Muwattalli II  1275 COS 2.5A, pp.  32-40 ANET 255-256

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Battle of Kadesh

Scenes from Battle of Kadesh at Ramesseum

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Routes of the Exodus

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Stela marking 400th anniversary of Hyksos rule. L to R:  god Seth, Ramesses II, and Seti I

Ammishtamru II, king of Ugarit, 1274-40

Ibiranu, king of Ugarit, 1240--? Receives angry letter from Piha-walwi of Hatti  COS 3.32, pp.  53

Niqmaddu III, king of Ugarit, ?--1225
Land grant COS 3.82, pp.  201

Joshua's Conquest ca 1230

JOSHCONQ.JPG (264667 bytes)

Property conveyances from Ugarit COS 3.103-3.110, pp.  254-258

Ugaritic letters COS 3.45A-PP, pp.  87-116

Nefertari, wife of Ramesses II



Urhi-Teshub (Mursili III) Hittite king 1272-1267

Hattusili III Hittite king 1267-1237; married to Puduhepa; deposed Urhi-Teshub (Mursili III), his nephew
Treaty with Ramesses II ANET 201-203; Apology COS 1.77, pp.  199-204 justifies usurpation of throne from Urhi-Teshub
Letter to Puduhepa from Naptera, queen of Egypt  COS 3.30, p.  51

Seal of Puduhepa

Court case against Ura-Tarhunta COS 3.33, pp.  57-60

Votive records COS 3.36, pp.  66-67

Letter of Hattusili to Kadashman-Enlil II of Babylon  COS 3.31, pp.  52-53

Daughter of Hattusili marries Ramesses II



Tudhaliya IV Hittite king 1237-1228, 1227-1209 Beginning of the end
Oracle Report COS 1.78, pp. 204-206; Treaty with Shaushgamuwa, his brother-in-law, king of Amurru 2.17C, pp. 98-100; Treaty with Kurunta his cousin and king of Tarkhuntassha COS 2.18, pp.  100-106

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Tudhalia IV embraced by Sharruma

Tudhalia IV seal found on letter at Ugarit.

Kurunta Hittite king1228-1227, brother of Urhi-Teshub

Kadashman-Enlil II, 25th Kassite king of Babylon 1263-1255

Kudur-Enlil, 26th Kassite king of Babylon 1254-1246

Shagarti-Shuriash Kassite king of Babylon 1245-1233




Kashtiliash IV 28th Kassite king of Babylon  1232-1225. Defeated by Tukulti-Ninurta I.


Enlil-nadin-shumi, 29th Kassite king of Babylon (contemporary of Tukulta-Ninurta I)

Kadashman-Harbe II,30th  Kassite king of Babylon 1223






Shalmaneser I 1273-1244 conquered Mitanni







Tukulti-Ninurta I 1243-1207 Prayer COS 1.140, p.  472 Assyrian king; defeated Kashtiliash IV (described in Tukuli-Ninurta Epic. Defeated Hittites under Tudhaliya IV. Assassinated by one of his sons.

TUKULT.JPG (112125 bytes)
altar from this period





Merneptah (Merenptah) 1224-1204
ANET 258-259, 378. Defeated first wave of Sea Peoples in 1207 BCE

Merneptah Stele (first mention of Israel outside the Bible) ca. 1207 ANET 376-378; COS 2.6, pp.  40-41; ANEP 342-343, 423; Merneptah stela

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Dead Israelites (Yurco); Canaanites (Rainey)

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Shasu (Yurco); Israelites (Rainey)

Papyrus Anastasi III COS 3.3, p. 15  ANET 471
A Report of Bedouin COS 3.5, pp. 16-17; ANET 259 

Amenmesse 1204-1200

Seti II 1200-1194

seti2.jpg (10012 bytes)

Mummy of Seti II

Siptah 1194-1188, son of a secondary wife

Siptah before Re Horakhty

Tawosret, Queen 1188-1187 chief wife of Seti II.    End of 19th dynasty

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Sea Peoples in Canaan
Merneptah stele

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Spelling of "Israel"

"Israel is laid waste, his seed is not."

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Map of Merneptah campaign


Ammurapi, last king of Ugarit, 1223-1180

Seti II


Letter from Ugarit found at Aphek, east of Byblos COS 3.94, p.  243



Arnuwanda III Hittite king 1209-1207

Suppiluliuma II Hittite king 1207-


Hittite conquest of Cyprus COS 1.75, pp.  192-193

Trouble with Sea Peoples

Rise of Neo-Hittite states


Merneptah mummy






Ashur-nadin-apli 1207-1204














  Ashur-nirari III 1203-1198



The Levant

Asia Minor