2000-1550 BCE in the Ancient Near Eastmurili

Last updated: March 30, 2014


The Levant

Asia Minor



Middle Kingdom 11-13th Dynasties

11. Dynasty -- Thebes becomes the new capital of Egypt

Montuhotep III 2004-1992

Montuhotep III

2000  Founding of temple of Karnak

Montuhotep IV 1992-1984

Middle Bronze Gate
at Ashkelon

Execration figurine from
Egypt mentioning Palestinian cities

Jerusalem in the execration texts

Fall of Ur III 2004 ANET 455-463

Old Assyrian Period


12. Dynasty 1991-1785 -- capital returns to Memphis


Dispute between a man and his soul COS 3.146, pp.  321-326

Israelís Matriarchs and Patriarchs

The Two Brothers COS 1.40, pp. 85-89; ANET 23-25 (parallel to Joseph story) Written in 19th dynasty

Abefam.jpg (554079 bytes)

Family Tree of Abraham

Amorite Dynasties of Isin  and Larsa

Shu-ilishu, 2nd king of Isin 1984-1955

ABEEMAP.JPG (94966 bytes)

Map of Abraham's travels

Amenemhet I 1991-1962  capital at Lisht. 

Satire of the Trades =disparages all but the scribes.

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Prophecy of Neferti announces Amenemhet as a charismatic savior.  He will build the Wall of the Ruler against tribes of Northern part of Canaan  and Southern Sinai COS 1.45, pp. 106-110.

Instruction of Amenemhet I, defended his accomplishments and said they should be continued.  COS 1.36, pp.  66-68; ANET 418-419  Assassinated and this instruction was composed by scribe under orders from Sesostris.  Assassinated due to conspiracy in harem.


Sinuhe 1950 ANET 18-22; COS 1.38, pp.  77-82 --starts with death of Amenemhet; Sinuhe stayed in the land of Canaan, but eventually returned to Egypt; masterpiece of Pharonic literature

Map of Sinuhe's Journey

Sinuhe Manuscript


Iddin-Dagan, 3rd king of Isin 1974-1954






Ishme-Dagan, 4th king of Isin 1953-1935

Zabaya king of Larsa ca 1941-1933

Lipit-Eshtar, 5th king of Isin 1934-1896
The Laws of Lipit-Ishtar COS 2.154, pp. 410-414; ANET 159-161

Lipit-Ishtar Lawcode

Ur-Ninurta, 6th king of Isin 1923-1896

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Map of Jacob's Trip


Ilushuma 1960-1939  established trading links with Anatolia

Sesostris I (Senwosret) 1971-1926 invaded southern Canaan; endorsed from beyond the grave by the Instructions of Amenemhet

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Imhotep, chancellor and high priest of Heliopolis

White chapel at Karnak; founded ca 1950 by Sesostris I

Letters from Heqanakht dealing with a poor harvest  COS 3.1, pp.  5-9

Amenemhet II 1922-1878

Sesostris I









Amenemhet II


Lipit-Ishtar (1934-1924) Lipit-Ishtar's Law Code ANET 159-161; COS 2.154, pp.  410-414

Clay Cone COS 295, p.  247 Lipit-Eshtar construction project

Gungunum Larsa dynasty 1932-1906

Erishum I ruler at Assur 1934-1900


Ikunum restored walls of Assur

Puzur-Ashur I

Shallim-ahhe, mentioned in Cappadocian tablets

Sesostris II (Senwosret) 1897-1878 (Beni Hasan Painting ANEP 3, 382-384)

Illustrated in cell on right.


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Beni Hasan Painting


Sesostris II


Laws of Eshnunna, 19-18c, COS 2.130, pp.  332-335; ANET, 161-163

First Dynasty of Babylon 1894-1595

Sumu-abum 1st ruler of First Dynasty of Babylon 1894-1881

Sumu-el king of Larsa 1894-1866

Warad-Sin king of Larsa 1890-1878
Nur-Adad king of Larsa 1865-1850

Sumu-la-el 2nd king of First Dynasty of Babylon 1880-1845

Enlil-bani, king of Isin 1860-1837

Old Assyrian Kingdom

Sesostris III (Senwosret) 1878-1841. Portraits of him at many ages.

conquered Shechem ANET 230

Eloquent Peasant composed

COS 1.43, pp.  98-104; ANET 407-410

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Sesostris III

Niqmaddu I, king of Ugarit ca. 1850


Sin-iddinam king of Larsa 1849-1843

Sabium, third king of First Dynasty of Babylon 1844-1831
Sin-eribam king of Larsa 1842-1841

Sin-iqisham king of Larsa 1840-1836
Silli-Adad king of Larsa 1835
Warad-Sin king of Larsa 1834-1823

Apil-Sin, fourth king of First Dynasty of Babylon  1830-1813





Amenemhet III 1844-1797 ANET 229-230.  Asiatics settled in Egypt.

Execration Texts ANET 328-329; ANEP 385
COS 1.32, pp.  50-52

Amenemhet III


Yaqarum I, king of Ugarit ca. 1825

"Jerusalem" in the Execration Texts

Execration figurine:

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Sin-magir, king of Isin 1827-1817

Rim-Sin, king of Larsa 1822-1763; captured Isin in 1796


Yaggid-Lim, king of Mari 1820-1811


Shamshi-Adad I  1813-1781 Assyrian king ANET 274 I received tribute in Ashur




Alalakh correspondence COS 3.99-102B; pp.  249-254; COS 3.125-126, pp. 276-277


Amenemhet IV 1799-1787

Queen Sobeknefru or Nefrusobek 1787-1783.  Sister-wife of Amenemhet IV

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Torso of Sobeknefru






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Law Code of Hammurabi










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Gilgamesh XI

Flood story

Sin-muballit 5th king of First Dynasty of Babylon 1812-1793; father of Hammurabi; defeated by Rim-Sin of Larsa

Hammurabi 1792-1750

Law Code ANET 163-180, COS 2.131, pp.  335-353; ANET 269-271 (other data on Hammurabi) ANE 246; ANEP 437

1758 Hammurabi conquers Mari

Hammurabi Law Code
Old Babylonian Inscriptions:  COS 2.107A-D; pp.  256-258


Samsu-iluna, 1749-1712, Edicts, COS 2.108, p.  258; COS 2.134, pp.  362-364

 Composition of Enuma Elish COS 1.111, pp.  390-402, ANET 60-72, 501-503

Atrahasis, and Gilgamesh Epic COS 1.132, pp.  458-460; ANET 72-99, 503-507.

Mari Letters ANET 482-483, 556-557, 623-625, 628-632.

Yahdun-Lim king of Mari 1810-1795

Sumu-Yamam king of Mari 1794-1791

Yasmah-addu 1790-1776 as governor of Mari; extensive Mari correspondence from this period. Son Ishme Dagan occupied Ekallatum


Ishme-Dagan I 1780-1741? 1953-1935
COS 2.94, p.  247

 Zimri-Lim King of Mari 1775-1761 his daughters were used to cement alliances and their letters are preserved. 20,000 tablets available from his reign. They show parallels to biblical prophecy.
Zimri-Lim COS 2.112, p.  261 married to Shibtu, the daughter of Yarim-Lim I of Aleppo

Zimri.jpg (27103 bytes)

Zimri-Lim (center) and Ishtar (right)

13. Dynasty 1783-1650 50+ kings in 150 years--many Canaanite immigrants

ANET 554-554

Order of following unsure:

Wegaf ca 1795

Sobekhotep I

Sobekhotep II

Sobekhotep III

List of Semitic slaves COS 3.11, pp.  35-37

Sobekhotep IV

Awibre Hor ca. 1750

Userkare Khendjer ca. 1750

Semenkhkare-Mermenfitu ca 1750

Neferhotep I ca 1740

Neferhotep I

Ibiya  1715-1704

Djedneferre Dudimose ca. 1675

Wepwawetemsaf ca. 1650


MB gate from
Jerusalem 1800 BCE








Awibre Hor


Agum I 2nd Kassite king of Babylon, early 18c

Samsu-iluna 1749-1712; revolt by Rim Sin II of Isin.

ANET 271

Abi-esuh 1711-1684

Ammi-ditana 1683-1647


The Second Intermediate 14th-17th Dynasties

14. Dynasty 1720-1648

Possibly up to 76 kings who ruled from Sais in the Delta and overlapped with the 13th and 15th dynasties. 


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Hyksos Kingdom

Kashtiliash I, 3rd Kassite king of Babylon, ca 1660

Ammi-saduqa 1646-1626

ANET 526-528


15. Dynasty 1648-1540 Hyksos (rulers of foreign lands) ruled from Avaris in eastern Delta.  Controlled part of Canaan.
ANET 230-234, 554-555

Salitis ca 1650 chose Avaris as capital


Khayan ca 1600

Apepi Awoserre (Apophis) ruled for 40 years ca. 1555.  best known of the Hyksos.

Apepi II (Apophis II) Aqenienre ca. 1550


16. Dynasty 1648-1540

About 17 minor kings who overlapped with the 15th dynasty

17. Dynasty 1648-1552 ruled from Thebes

Sekhemre Wahkhau ca 1650

Rahotep ca 1650

Sobekemsaf II ca. 1600

Inyotef VI 

Inyotef VII

Senakhtenre Tao I ca 1570

Seqenenre Tao II ca. 1560 began process of expelling Hyksos

Kamose ca 1555-1550 drove back Hyksos. Brother of Ahmose

Hyksos Map

Hyksos Seals from the Levant

Mitanni 1550-1250 BCE

Lawsuit from Hazor COS 3.120, pp. 269-270







Canaanite god El, discovered at Megiddo

Hittite Old Kingdom 1650-1500

Labarna -1650; adopted Hattusili I as his son

Hattusili I 1650-1620
COS 2.15, pp.  79-81 installs his adopted son Mursili on throne. Moved capital to Hattusa

Mursili I 1620-1590
1595 conquered Babylon; assassinated by his brother-in-law Hantili

Hittite Laws, 1650-1500, COS 2.19, pp.  106-119.

Hantili I 1590-1560

Zidanta I 1560-1550 killed by his own son






Samsu-ditana, last king of the First Dynasty of Babylon, 1625-1595 defeated by Mursilis I



Kassite Dynasty 1595-1160 filled vacuum created by Hittite raid.  Capital at Dur-Kurigalzu











The Levant

Asia Minor