Solomon in Chronicles and Kings

A synopsis prepared by Ralph W. Klein
Vannutelli = Libri Synoptici Veteris Testamenti

© 2006 by Ralph W. Klein

 

2 Chronicles Chiasm (Dillard)

2 Chronicles

1 Kings

A. Solomon’s wealth and wisdom (1:1-17)

Vannutelli 109

1:1 Solomon established himself in his kingdom.  Cf. 1 Kgs 2:12b, 46b.

Parker's Schema of 1 Kings 1-11 JSOT 42 [1988], 27

Frame story, chs. 1-2

1:1-10 Adonijah contends for the throne

1:11-31 Nathan and Bathsheba organize a coup d’etat

1:32-40 Anointing and Acclamation of Solomon

1:41-53 Adonijah seeks asylum

2:1-12 David’s testament

2:13-25 Adonijah executed

2:26-35 Abiathar exiled and Joab executed

LXX has a long addition in 2:35 a-o

2:36-46 Shimei executed; Solomon’s kingdom established

LXX has a long addition in 2:46 a-l

 

Cf. 2 Chr 8:11 where Solomon moves Pharaoh's daughter from the city of David to her own house.

1. Dream 1  3:1-15--Favorable to Solomon

3:1 Solomon married Pharaoh’s daughter; This verse is not translated in LXX at this point, but see 4:31 in LXX. (follows MT 5:14; NRSV 4:34)  The next verses in LXX  4:32-33 =  1 Kgs 9:16-17 = Pharaoh gave Solomon Gezer as a dowry.

3:2-3 Solomon and people worship at the high places

 

1:2 Solomon summoned all Israel

1:3a Solomon and whole assembly went to the high place of Gibeon…

3:4a King alone went to high place of Gibeon

 

1:3b-6 where there was the tent of meeting made by Moses, but David had brought the ark to Jerusalem ( see 1 Chr 13:1-16:1).

Bronze altar made by Bezalel (1 Chr 21:29; cf. Exod 27:1-8; 31:2-11) was also at Gibeon and on it Solomon sacrificed 1000 burnt offerings

 

 

3:4b where Solomon used to sacrifice 1000 burnt offerings.

 

1:7-13a God granted Solomon’s request for wisdom—also riches and honor.

 

 

[In Chronicles Jerusalem is not yet a fit place for sacrifice]

3:5-15 Similar but this happened in a dream and adds: If you will walk in my ways, I will lengthen your life. Solomon awoke from his dream. He went to Jerusalem and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings before the ark in Jerusalem. Provided a feast for all his servants.

(Polemic against dreams in Jer 23:25-32)

 

 


In Chronicles Solomon's wisdom is demonstrated in his building the temple and the story about the prostitutes is not included

Vannutelli 110
A. Domestic Policy
2. Women and wisdom 3:16-28
3:16-28 Solomon’s wisdom: he decided which prostitute would get the live baby

 

Vannutelli 111


1:13b Solomon ruled over Israel

3. Administration and wisdom 4:1-5:14 (4:1-34)

4:1 Similar

 

 

4:2-6 Solomon's officials
4:7-20 deputies and the 12 administrative districts that made provisions for each month in the year.

 

2 Chr 9:26 Solomon ruled from Euphrates, the land of the Philistines, and as far as the border of Egypt

Note different position of this verse in Chronicles.

Vannutelli 112
5:1 (4:21) similar

 

    5:1-14 [4:21-34] Solomon’s massive daily provisions for his court.. 

v. 6 (4:26) Solomon had 40,000 stalls of horses and 12,000 horsemen.  Cf. 2 Chr 1:14, 9:25//1 Kgs 10:26

Solomon's famed wisdom about nature. He spoke 3,000 proverbs and his songs were 1,005.

5:7-8 (4:27-28) are in divergent position in LXX 5:1.   

(Trade in horses [1:14-17])

Vannutelli 113

1:14-17 1,400 chariots and 12,000 cavalry. Plentiful silver, gold, and cedar wood. Horse trading.  Wealth useful for building temple and it fulfills the promise made in v. 12 ("I will also give you riches").

= 1 Kgs 10:26-29 1,400 chariots and 12,000 horses. Plentiful silver, (gold and silver LXX), and cedar wood. Horse trading.
 

Note the different position of this paragraph in Kings

B. Recognition by gentiles/dealings with Hiram (1:18-2:15 [2:1-16]).  Cf. Queen of Sheba

 

 

 

 

(Yahweh’s love for Israel [2:10 {2:11}]).  Cf. 2 Chr 9:8

Vannutelli 114

1:18-2:15 [2:1-16] Solomon decided to build the temple and a palace for himself.

Solomon conscripted 70,000 laborers and 80,000 stone cutters from the hill country, plus 3,600 supervisors.  2 Chr 2:1 (2); cf. 2 Chr 2:17 (18)//1 Kgs 5:29-30 (15-16).

heavens cannot contain God 2 Chr 2:5 (6)

Solomon asked Huram for a skilled artisan and lumber and Solomon sent him a one-time gift of grain, wine, and oil 2 Chr 2:6-9 (7-10).

Huram: Because Yahweh loves his people he has made you king (2:10 [11]).

Vv. 12-13 [13-14] I [Huram] have sent Huram-abi, son of a Danite woman [same ancestry as Oholiab in Exod 31:6; 35:34; 38:23] and of a Tyrian man, as a multi-talented artisan.

 

v. 15 (16) We will send timber to Joppa and you can take it to Jerusalem.

B. Labor relations
4. The Contract with Hiram 5:15-26 (1-12)

5:15-22 [5:1-8] In response to a message from Hiram, Solomon asks the Tyrian king for cedar wood and he agrees.



1 Kgs 8:27 similar


 

 

 

7:13-14 Solomon invited Hiram, son of a Naphtalite woman to be his artisan in bronze. (In its location in Kings this is after the completion of the temple and palace).

Note the divergent position of this passage in the book of Kings

5:23-26 [5:9-12] Hiram sends timber from Lebanon. Solomon sends annual gifts to Hiram (5:25 [11]) and the two enact a treaty.

C. Temple construction/gentile labor (2:16-5:1 [2:17-5:1])

(2:16-17 [17-18] Gentile labor).  Cf. 2 Chr 8:7-10.

Vannutelli 115

 



2:16-17 [17-18] 153,600 aliens residing in Israel broken down into 70,000 laborers, 80,000 stone cutters, and 3,600 overseers.

5. The Corvée 5:27-32 (13-18)

5:27-28 [5:13-14] Solomon conscripted 30,000 forced laborers out of all Israel, with Adoniram in charge (cf. 1 Kgs 9:20-22).

70,000 laborers and 80,000 stonecutters in the hill country, plus 3,300 overseers.  5:29-30 (15-16).

5:31-32 [5:17-18] large stones for foundation of temple.  Builders of Solomon and Hiram and the Gebalites worked together

 

Vannutelli 116

3:1-2 Solomon built the temple on Mount Moriah (cf. Gen 22:2, 14), where Yahweh had appeared to David (1 Chr 21). Threshing floor of Ornan.  Second month, 14th year of Solomon


3:3-4 Dimensions of the temple and vestibule

6. Solomon's Attitude Toward God chs. 6-8

6:1 480 years after Exodus Solomon built temple. 2nd month 14th year of Solomon

 


6:2-3 Dimensions of the temple.

 

 

6:4-18 More details about temple building.

 

3:4b-5a Gold overlay and cypress lining.

6:20b-22 overlay with cedar and gold.

 

3:5b-9 More details and overlay; Holy of Holies; nails

6:20a dimensions of debir

 

3:10-13 Two cherubim in Holy Place

6:23-28 Two cherubim

 

 

3:14 veil or curtain closed off Most Holy Place.

6:29-30 walls and floor of temple.

31-32 two doors of olive wood at entrance to shrine.

    6:33-38  Construction of temple took seven years, from 4th to 11th year of Solomon.

 

 

Vannutelli 117

7:1-12 Solomon’s palace (for vv. 13-14 see 2 Chr 2:12-13 (13-14 [Huram-abi, the artisan])

Palace took thirteen years to build. Solomon also made a house for Pharaoh’s daughter (v. 8).

 

Vannutelli 118

3:15-17 Pillars in front of temple (shorter text than in Kings)

 

7:15-22 Pillars in front of temple

 

4:1 altar of bronze

Accidentally lost in Kings by homoioarchton? ("and he made"…"and he made")

 

4:2-5 Molten sea supported by twelve oxen

7:23-26 Molten sea

 

 

7:27-37 Ten water carts

 

4:6aa Ten lavers to wash in (tabernacle had one laver).

7:38 Ten lavers

each laver contained 40 baths--one laver for each of the water carts.

 

4:6ab -9 The "sea" was for the priests to wash in. Ten golden lampstands, ten tables, and one hundred basins of gold

 

 

4:10-22 Various vessels for the temple. Secondary? Inner doors (v. 22) contradict idea that a curtain closed off the Most Holy Place (3:14)

7:39b-50 Similar.

 

(completion of temple 5:1)

D. Dedication of temple (5:2-7:10)

1. a. summons (vv. 2-4), b. sacrifice (v. 6), c. music (vv. 12-13), d. glory cloud (vv. 13-14) (5:2-14)

Vannutelli 119

5:1 temple finished.
5:2-11a Ark brought to temple.

V. 4 Levites carried the ark.

Tent of meeting was also brought from Gibeon (v. 5; cf. 1 Chr 16:39; 21:29; 2 Chr 1:3, 5)

7:51-8:10a Similar.

 

8:3 priests carry the ark.

8:4 unexpected mention of tent of meeting

 

5:11b-13a Levitical musicians (Asaph, Heman, Jeduthun): "For he is good, for his loyalty endures forever." Cf. 2 Chr 7:3

 

 

5:13b-14 Cloud and glory in temple (Cf. Exod 40:34-38).

This theophany is witnessed only by the priests.  A second theophany in 2 Chr 7:1-3 is seen by all the people.

810b-11Similar.

2. Solomon speaks to the people (6:1-11)

  1. Exodus (6:5)
  2. Choice of Jerusalem (6:6-11)

2’. Solomon speaks to God (6:12-42)

Vannutelli 120

6:1-12 Solomon refers to the Exodus and celebrates the divine choice of Jerusalem and David

v. 10 Solomon:  I have succeeded my father David…and have built the house for the name of the LORD.

8:12-22 Similar.  Choice of city mentioned in v. 16 but name Jerusalem not explicit.

(vv. 12-13 absent at this point in LXX; appear after v. 53)

 

6:13 Platform of bronze (5 x 5 x 3)Solomon knelt and spread out his hands in prayer

Homoioteleuton in Kings MT?

  1. Promises to David (6:16-17)
  2. Eyes open; hear and forgive (6:18-42)

6:14-39 Dedicatory prayer.

v. 16 walk in my law
 

vv. 24-25 pardon your people who have sinned against you.

8:23-50aa .

v. 25 walk before me

 

 

8:50ab -51 Grant your people compassion before their captors. Reference to Exodus--your people…whom you brought out of Egypt.

 

6:40 Let your eyes and ears be open to prayer from this place.

8:52 Let your eyes be open to the plea of your servant and Israel

 

 

8:53 Reference to Moses your servant and Exodus. LXX places 8:12-13 here!

 

6:41-42 Hope built on a word from the time of David. Remember your steadfast love for your servant David (or remember the faithful deeds of David your servant).

Ps 132:8-10, and Ps 132:1 Remember in David’s favor all the hardships he endured.

1’. d’. glory cloud (vv. 1-3); c’. music (v. 6); b’. sacrifice (vv. 4-5, 7); a.’ dismissal (v. 10) (7:1-10)

Vannutelli 121

7:1a Solomon ended his prayer

8:54a Similar

 

7:1b-3a Fire came down from heaven and consumed the sacrifices (cf. Lev 9:23-24; 1 Chr 21:26), and glory of Yahweh filled the house. Priests unable to enter house (Exod 40:35).  Since the glory was also on the house, the people could see it and offer appropriate worship

 

 

People said a doxology: "For he is good, for his loyalty lasts forever." Cf. 2 Chr 5:11-13.

Ps 136:1

 

 

8:54b-61 Solomon blesses Israel

 

7:4-5 Solomon sacrificed 22,000 oxen and 120,000 sheep at the dedication of the temple (cf. large number of sacrifices in the time of Hezekiah [29:32-36] and Josiah [35:7-9]).

8:62-63 Similar.

 

7:6 Priests and Levitical singers. "for his loyalty lasts forever.  Priestly trumpeters.

 

 

7:7-8 Solomon consecrated middle of the court because the altar could not handle all the sacrifices, and he is credited with making a bronze altar.

Solomon and all Israel held festival (of Tabernacles) for 7 days

Wadi of Egypt (v. 8).  Participants came from the geographic totality of Israel--from Lebo-Hamath to the Wadi of Egypt

8:64-65 Similar. Bronze altar, but no mention of Solomon building it.

All Israel held a festival for 14 days (LXX 7 days).  This represents a gloss in Kings from Chronicles.  In Kings originally there was a seven day festival of dedication.  In Chronicles there was a seven day festival of dedication, followed by seven days of Tabernacles, that was extended to an eighth day in accord with  late Pentateuchal legislation.

 

7:9-10 Solemn assembly on 8th day of Tabernacles (dedication of altar 7 days and an extended Tabernacles celebration of 8 days, Lev 3:34-36, 39-43); people sent home on 23rd day. Hezekiah's passover lasted for fourteen days (2 Chr 30:23)

Yahweh's goodness to David and Solomon and Israel.

8:66 On 8th day (after a seven day dedication ceremony) people sent home.





 

Yahweh’s goodness to David and Israel.

D’. Divine response (7:11-22)

2". God speaks to Solomon (7:12-18)

Vannutelli 122

7:11-12ba Solomon finished the temple and the palace. Yahweh appeared and said he has heard Solomon’s prayer.

1. Dream 2      9:1-10a
Hostile to Solomon

9:1-3a Similar.

v. 2 Yahweh appeared to Solomon a second time, just as he had appeared at Gibeon.

  1. Eyes open; hear and forgive (7:13-16)

7:12bb -16 Yahweh: I have chosen this place as a house of sacrifice.   If people humble themselves, pray, seek Yahweh's face, and repent during natural calamities, Yahweh will hear and forgive and heal the land.  Ends with another affirmation of the choice of "this place" at the beginning of v. 16. 

Yahweh's name, eyes, and heart will be in the temple forever, for all time.

 

 

 

 


9:3b similar

  1. Promises to David (7:17-18)

7:17-18 If you, Solomon, walk before me, I will establish your throne, as I made a covenant with your father David.

9:4-5 Similar, but throne is promised forever..

V. 5 As I promised David your father.

  1. 2.’" God speaks to the people (7:19-22)

  2. Choice of Jerusalem (7:19-21)

a. Exodus (7:22)

Vv. 19-22 show what the consequences of idolatry would be:  exile and the destruction of the temple.  Reason for destruction is clinging to other gods. 9:6-9 Similar.

C’. Other construction/gentile labor (8:1-16)

Vannutelli 123

8:1-2 After 20 years of building (hence the palace took 13 years to build though that is not mentioned in Chronicles), Solomon rebuilt the cities that Huram had given to him 

B' Labor Relations
2. The contract with Hiram 9:10b-14

9:10-13 After 20 years Solomon gave to Hiram twenty cities in exchange for lumber and gold, but Hiram was displeased with them. They are called the land of Cabul.

 

 

9:14-16 Hiram gave Solomon 120 talents of gold. = ca. 4 tons

3. The Corvée 9:15-28

V. 15. Forced labor in Israel. Construction at Jerusalem (temple and palace, the millo, and the wall of Jerusalem), Hazor, Megiddo, Gezer.

V. 16 Pharaoh had burned Gezer and given it as a dowry to his daughter, Solomon’s wife.

 

8:3-5 Solomon captures Hamath-Zobah and carries on building projects in several cities—Tadmor (140 miles northeast of Damascus), storage cities in Hamath, Upper Beth-horon, Lower Beth-horon, and Baalath.

9:17-18 Solomon rebuilds Gezer and other cities, including Tamar in the wilderness of southern Judah.

vv. 20-21 forced labor from pre Israelite inhabitants of land, but not from Israel itself (but see 1 Kgs 5:27-32 [5:13-18]; 11:28; 12:4)

(Gentile labor [8:7-10])

8:6-10 Other building activities in Jerusalem, in Lebanon, and in all the land of his dominion. Conscripted pre Israelite inhabitants of land for forced labor. No slaves from Israel. 250 chief officers

9:19-23. Similar 550 chief officers

 

 

 

Vannutelli 124  8:11a Solomon brought Pharaoh’s daughter from city of David to her own house.

9:24 (cf. 3:1; 7:8; 9:16; 11:1) Similar. The daughter of Pharaoh went up to her house.  Solomon builds the Millo.

 

8:11b The places to which the ark has come are holy.  Hence no wife of Solomon can live in the house (or city?) of David.

 

 

8:12 Solomon performs sacrifices

9:25 Similar.

(Completion of temple [8:16])

Vannutelli 125

8:13-16 Offerings for sabbaths and festivals done in conformity with law of Moses (Num 28-29); Solomon appointed priests and Levites just like David the man of God. Whole work on temple finished

 

B’. Recognition by gentiles/dealings with Hiram (8:17-9:12)

Vannutelli 126

8:17-18 Solomon active at Ezion-geber and Eloth.  Maritime adventures with boats and sailors sent by Huram. 450 talents of gold were brought to Solomon.

9:26-28 Similar, but Solomon built the fleet at Ezion-geber and there were only 420 talents of gold from Ophir. = ca. 15 tons

(Yahweh’s love for Israel [9:8])

Vannutelli 127

9:1-12 Visit of queen of Sheba (1400 miles from Jerusalem).  Wisdom of Solomon.  She said: Yahweh has set you on his throneYahweh loves Israel.  v. 8.
She gives Solomon 120 talents of gold (ca. 4 tons) and silver.  Solomon in turn outdoes her in generosity.

A' Foreign Policy
4. Woman and Wisdom 10:1-13

10:1-13 Similar.

Yahweh has set you on the throne of Israel, v. 9.

A’. Solomon’s wealth and wisdom (9:13-28)

(Trade in horses [9:25-28])

2Chr=2 Chr=1 Kgs

1:14=9:25=10:26
          9:26=  5:1a (4:21a)
1:15=9:27=10:27
1:16=9:28=10:28
1:17          =10:29

 

 

Vannutelli 128

9:13-25 Solomon’s wealth - in one year = 666 talents [ca. 24 tons] v. 13; ivory throne, vv. 17-19; ships to Tarshish v. 21; imports luxury goods.

v. 25 4,000 stalls for horses and chariots and 12,000 horses

5. Wealth and Wisdom 10:14-29

10:14-26 Similar.

 


v. 26 1,400 chariots and 12,000 horses

LXX (29): 4,000 stalls for horses and chariots and 12,000 horses.  1 Kgs 10:23-26 MT = LXX 10:26-29.

(cf. 1 Kgs 5:6 [4:26] 40,000 stalls of horses for his chariots and 12,000 horsemen)

 

9:26 Solomon ruled from the Euphrates to the land of the Philistines, up to the border of Egypt

5:1 [4:21] Similar, but note its different position within the narrative

Kings LXX = 1 Kgs 10:30 = This verse has same position as in Chronicles.  That is, LXX 1 Kgs 10:29 (MT 1 Kgs 10:26) = 2 Chr 9:25

 

9:27 Silver as common as stone and cedar as sycamores

v. 28 horses imported from Egypt for Solomon (cf. 1:16) and from all lands (abridged because of repetition at 1:14-17?)

10:27 Silver as common as stone and cedar as sycamores

v. 28 horses imported from Egypt and Kue
 

 

 

10:29. Chariots cost 600 shekels and a horse cost 150 shekels. They were exported to all the kings of the Hittites and the kings of Aram.
v. 29 = 2 Chr 1:17, but this verse is not included in 2 Chronicles 9.

 

 

Vannutelli 129
6. Solomon's attitude toward God 11:1-13

11:1-13 Solomon’s 700 wives and 300 concubines and the idolatry that resulted from this. V. 6: Solomon did evil in the sight of Yahweh and did not completely follow Yahweh, as his father David had done. Solomon turned away from Yahweh who had appeared to him twice (3:5-14 and 9:1-9).
V. 11 Yahweh:  I will surely tear the kingdom from you and give it to your servant.
v. 13 I will give one tribe to your son.

Vannutelli 130

Frame Story 11:14-43

14-26 Hadad of Edom and Rezon of Damascus are adversaries of Solomon.  Pharaoh gives his wife's sister Tahpenes to Hadad.  They have a son Genubath. 

Rezon was an adversary throughout Solomon's reign.
Jeroboam the son of Nebat rebelled. 

Vannutelli 131

27-40 Jeroboam had been overseer over forced labor from the house of Joseph.  Ahijah the prophet promises Jeroboam 10 tribes, but promises Rehoboam 1 tribe for the sake of David. Jeroboam given a conditional dynastic promise.  Solomon tries to kill him.  Jeroboam fled to Egypt, to Shishak, until the death of Solomon.

 

Vannutelli 132

9:29-31 Reference to the words of the  prophet Nathan (1 Chr 17), the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite (1 Kgs 11-15), and the visions of the seer Iddo (2 Chr 12:15; 13:22). Solomon reigned 40 years. Rehoboam became king in his place.

11:41-43

Reference to the Book of the Acts of Solomon.

Solomon reigned 40 years.  Rehoboam became king

 

11:17 They made Rehoboam son of Solomon secure. They walked for three years in the way of David and Solomon.